Bomber
other
Bomber

Bomber

Bomber - military aircraft, whose main objective is the defeat of ground, surface, underground and underwater objects using missile and bomb armament.

The emergence bomber

For the first time, the use of airplanes to destroy ground targets was undertaken before the outbreak of World War I. Instead of bombs then metal darts or flutesheets were used. In size, they were slightly larger than a pencil. Thus, the dart bombardment was conducted from above on the positions of infantry and cavalry. The weight of such an arrow is 30 gram, it was able to penetrate 150 mm of wood. The first aerial bomb was created by the Italian military K. Tzipelli. Its main purpose was to design a fuse, which was supposed to work at the most crucial moment. Subsequent experiments with grenades of various types led to the death of the inventor.

The very first combat bombing took place in November 1 1911 years. In the midst of the Italo-Turkish war, the Italian pilot Gavotti 4 dropped bombs on the Turks in the city of Tripoli. A little later, as the submunitions Italians began using buckshot.

World War I

At the beginning of airplanes to bomb purely to intimidate the enemy. As the carriers used light reconnaissance aircraft. The bombs were dropped manually by pilots and operations are not consistent with the actions of ground troops. The first bombardment of Paris was realized in late August 1914 years. In November of the same year Lieutenant Caspar bombed Dover.

But best of all in this period have shown themselves airships. Germany is the most powerful aeronautic power. With 18 instances, she could dump several tons of bombs. In mid-August 14-year one of the airships made airstrike Antwerp, destroying residential buildings 60, 900 more were damaged. But the British gunners managed to bring down unit 4, after which the Germans have refused to operate airships during daylight hours.

The first full-fledged and fully meets the title of the bomber was a Russian unit chetyrehdvigatelny Igor Sikorsky "Ilya Muromets". In December 1914 years of such "Muromtsev" was created "The squadron of airships." The bombs were placed not only inside the plane, but also outside. In addition, responsible for protecting aircraft guns installed. The first multi-engine bombers began to emerge in many countries. Anyway, they were like, "Ilya Muromets". Germany - G-III, IV-G, GV, «Zeppelin-Staaken R-VI»; England - 0 / 400, Vickers "Vimy"; USA - "Martin MB-1».

The interwar period

In the postwar period the development of the class Bomber significantly slowed. This was mainly due to events in the countries: Russia - revolution and civil war; Austria and Germany in connection with the banned losing to develop military industry; Western countries, including the United States, struggling with an internal crisis.

Nevertheless, aviation was developed. The main indicators of optimal quality were the range and load capacity. In addition to the airplanes, tactics of combat were developed in flight schools. In the 20-ies a great contribution to the development of strategic aviation was made by the Italian military Giulio Douay. The main scheme for that period is a biplane box with wooden wings, a retractable landing gear and open machine guns. The brightest representatives: LeO-20 - France, "Hayford" and "Virginia" - England. In 25, the legendary ANT-4 has risen to the sky in the USSR. It was the first serial multi-engine all-metal bomber at that time. In December 30, TB-3 climbed to the sky and set several world records. In 1933, the twin-engine "B-10 Martin" of American production became the first bomber with an internal deployment of bombs, closed cockpit shooter and pilot, smooth siding and retractable landing gear. This period can be noted as the beginning of the construction of different types and types of bombers, but basically there are several: high-speed and long-range. The Versailles peace treaty prohibited Germany from building military aircraft, so their designers, with the expectation of a possible second war, began to produce passenger liners with the possibility of their subsequent conversion to bombers. Typical representatives of such cunning - Non-111 and Ju-86 - became the basis of Luftwaffe aviation. In July 1935, an experienced prototype of the first heavy bomber of the new generation "Boeing V-17" was launched into the air. In December of the following year tests of TB-7 began in the USSR. And in 1939, Italy and England released their types of bombers: Piaggio R.108, Stirling and Halifax. In parallel, dive bombers appeared in the military aviation industry - Pe-2 and Junkers Yu 87.

The Second World War

In the history of World War II, over 100 different types of bombers took part in the battles. Conditionally they began to be divided into long-range and front-line ones. Accordingly, from the type of bomber they performed the assigned tasks. Among the front-line most prominent are English De Havilland Mosquito, Soviet Pe-2, American Martin B-26 Marauder, Douglas A-20 Havoc and A-26 Invader. Far - English Vickers Wellington, Soviet IL-4, American B-25 Mitchell, German "Junkers Yu 88" and "Henkel 111". If the Soviet Union and Germany developed more frontal aviation, the United Kingdom and the United States paid attention to heavy four-engine bombers, which could deal massive blows to the target. At the heart of the American heavy bombers was the Boeing V-17 "Flying Fortress", which was considered the fastest and high-altitude combat aircraft at the beginning of the war. The most striking representative was the project of A. Jordanov "Boeing V-29". At that time, this unit had perfect aerodynamics and powerful engines. And it was he who was the first of all to transport nuclear weapons (from the Enola Gay, the US Air Force bombed the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945).

With 44-year in active hostilities participated bomber jet aircraft. And for the first time began to develop jet fighter-bombers. The first modification of the aircraft - Me-262A2, designed in Germany in 1942 year. A year later, the German engineers have developed a bomber carrier (Do-217K) for guided weapons, which is planning to bomb dropped. The world's first missile became obsolete at the end of the war no-111. It was he who produced cruise missiles FAU-1.

During the Cold War

With the onset of complications of communication between the US and the USSR, advanced countries began an arms race. In particular, bombers became the only potential carriers of the most formidable nuclear weapons at the time. However, the development of new heavy aircraft with the ability to overcome huge distances to strike was extremely expensive. Because of this, only three countries engaged in similar studies: the United States, the USSR and the United Kingdom, among which the Soviet Union lagged the most. Realizing this, the country's leadership decided to start developing new prototypes, in particular, the Tupolev Design Bureau managed to completely copy the American B-29. The copy was called Tu-4.

New features at a great distance flights allowed to bring other classes and designations. Thus, the bombers, who were able to overcome the distance in 10-15 thousand km, began to call the intercontinental before 10 thousand. Km - later (average). Devices that could engage in the frontal zone or behind enemy lines, began to call a tactical aircraft.

In 1946, the USA created the first intercontinental bomber "Convert In-36". It was also the last strategic bomber on which piston engines were used. In the 50-ies, aircraft designers managed to create aircrafts that for many years defined the external appearance of heavy aircraft construction, among which the first is the B-47. Unlike American designers, Tupolev's specialists used a wing with a rigid caisson, which had a high survivability (Tu-16) for a new jet bomber. On its basis the USSR designed the first flagship of jet passenger aviation - Tu-104.

In April 1952, a prototype of the US intercontinental bomber YB-52 was launched into the air. In the design, many previously developed optimal parts of the B-47 aircraft were used. Thus, the new B-52 became the main subsonic aircraft of America's strategic air command. The plane showed itself extremely well, which influenced the decision of the Air Force command to develop purely supersonic vehicles. In November 56, the prototype B-58 was launched into the air, which became the first long-range supersonic bomber. To improve the aerodynamic qualities of aircraft designers used some components of the fighter. Thus, gradually the project began to be modernized, smoothly passing to V-70 "Valkyrie". The new unit was pinned on the hopes of a change in obsolete B-52. However, the program was closed due to the spectacular demonstration in May of the 60 year of Soviet ZRK, which easily amazed both subsonic and supersonic purposes.

At the same time, Khrushchev came to power in the Soviet Union, who firmly believed in the omnipotence of missile weapons. This direction completely stopped work on intercontinental bombers in the USSR. However, aviation, in one way or another, needed aircraft capable of destroying AUG (carrier-based strike groups), in particular, this project was more concerned with the creation of new weapons of the US Navy. In September 1959, the first flight was made by a long supersonic bomber Tu-22. Its layout was the most original and hitherto never used. Further development was the supersonic aircraft of the Sukhoi T-4 design bureau. However, due to political problems, the program in 70-x was closed.

Low-altitude supersonic bomber

Period 60-ies in the United States was marked by constant training and research in the field of heavy aircraft. This has revealed the need to guide the Air Force after receiving information about Soviet air defense, the characteristics of which at that time were the best. A temporary solution was Adopting bomber FB-111, modification of the heavy impact of tactical aircraft F-111.

In the USSR, they decided to make an analogue of the US front-line bomber Su-24, which took off in January of the year 70. Unlike the American leadership, the Union decided not to give up altitude. All efforts were made to create new multimode aircraft. Tu-22M - one of such projects, which first climbed into the sky in August 1969. At the same time in the United States began to develop a new multi-mode bomber - B-1A. According to preliminary calculations, it was supposed to replace B-52, but in the 77 year after a series of flight tests the project was decided to close. In addition, the need for unobtrusive aircraft to break through enemy air defenses disappeared after the successful development of technology "Stealth".

Subtle bombers

The new air defense system of the USSR forced the Air Force to look for other ways to improve the survival rate of the aircraft in combat. The first is considered stealthy bomber F-117, which flew into the air in June 1981 years. In July 89-year in the air for the first time rose bomber B-2, which is created by the program ATV. After some time, the designers had to change a bit and improve the requirements, since the Soviet Union received new weapons of S-300. It was built units in 20-2.

Contemporaneity

When the Cold War ended, a lot of expensive programs of strategic bombers has been minimized. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union managed to build units Tu 35-160, which were based primarily on Ukraine, in the city Priluki. In 92-year serial production of the aircraft stopped, but a year later, production began to make small series Tu-160 Russia. By year 2007 16 in Russia, there were planes. In addition, Russia has armed stand-Tu 64 95 158MS and Tu-22M. In 2015, the Russian Air Force plans to launch in the sky the first national long-range bomber technology "Stealth".

In 1990, the US Defense Department has requested new solutions in the production of advanced bombers. Thus, by the year 2007 in the ranks of the Air Force consisted of units in 21-2, 20 - In-2A, 66 - In-1V and 76 - In-52N. Company "Lockheed" and "Boeing" announced their intention to create a new strategic bomber. His plan to deliver service in 2018 year.

Tactical aviation is characterized by blurred boundaries between the fighter-bombers, bombers and attack aircraft. The main differences are in the range and capacity limitations of warfare.

Classification bombers:

  1. Strategic.

  2. Tactical (front-line).

  3. Stormtroopers (support).

  4. Dive.

  5. Fighter-bombers.

Design features of almost all bombers are related to:

  • the presence of the huge fuselage sections for placing weapons;

  • a large amount of the fuel tanks, which sometimes can increase the weight of the aircraft to 60%;

  • that sealed the cockpit and large in size.

To create these aircraft can be used radio-absorbing materials that reduce radar visibility. Sometimes, to overcome great distances bombers equipped with air refueling system. In most cases, multi-engine propulsion system.

Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane
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upstairs