Experimentally-psychological modeling of pilot error
Experimentally-psychological modeling of pilot error


Simulation pilot error

Due to the very nature of the phenomena being studied, it is impossible to carry out research on the type of "natural" experiment, therefore, the research was based on the type of laboratory simulation of real situations. The experimental investigation pursued the solution of two problems. The first was the proof of the possibility of laboratory imitation of phenomena - this would confirm the correctness of the theoretical hypothesis of pseudo-action. In connection with this, when creating the experimental situation, it was meant to simulate those aspects of the real situation that are essential (necessary and sufficient) for manifesting the phenomena under study from the hypothesis point of view, and also to obtain regular reproducibility of the phenomena studied. The second task was to prove the possibility of controlling the manifestation of the phenomena studied and to identify means for eliminating them as a prototype of measures to combat the corresponding errors.

Phenomena of fulfillment and unfulfilledness. According to the hypothesis, the operational level of the procedure and the switching to another procedure (distractor) are the necessary conditions for the appearance of the phenomena of fulfillment and unfulfilledness. The phenomenon of fulfillment occurs when the action is interrupted before the beginning of its actual (motor) execution, but internally already ready to be performed; The phenomenon of unfulfilledness occurs when the action is interrupted immediately after its actual (motor) execution, but this performance is not yet controlled internally. The similarity of the conditions for the onset of these phenomena allowed them to be investigated simultaneously in the same experimental situation,

The general methodical scheme of the experiment was as follows. The subjects were asked to perform two very simple tasks in turn: to draw simple geometric shapes (triangles, rhombuses, squares, etc.) on two different sheets of paper. In order that the subjects did not see the results of their work (they did not have external supports for memorization), they “drew” a plastic rod on a plastic film on which no traces remained. Under the film were sheets of clean and copy paper for an objective recording of the results of the assignment. Each task in relation to the other served as a distractor. Transition from performance of one task to another, etc. occurred at the command of the experimenter, and the subject was to continue the execution of the previously interrupted task only from the place at which it was interrupted. All cases of forgetting or doubt, the subjects were supposed to fix. Subjects worked at their own pace. When processing the results, omissions and repetitions were taken into account only in cases where the subjects were confident that they were drawing correctly. The erroneous confidence was evidenced by both the self-report of the subject and the reaction of surprise, which can almost always be observed in the subjects when they are presented with results containing errors. The experiment involved randomly selected subjects aged from 14 to 45 years: schoolchildren, students, flight mechanics of aircraft.

Series 1. In this series, the experimenter asked the subjects relatively short work programs during the course of the experiment. Each task included only two types of figures, for example for the first sheet - triangles and diamonds, for the second - squares and crosses. The subject had to draw six figures each time - three each; Large, medium and small. When he finished the next task, he was given two other types of figures, and the order of the type was random. Drawing was interrupted only in two definite moments: either at the moment when the subject proceeded to draw the first element, not yet starting to actually draw it, or at the moment when he had just finished drawing the last element of the task. In the experiment, 56 people took part. The total number of switches for all subjects in this series was 2235. The execution phenomenon took place in 0,8% of cases, the phenomenon is unfulfilled - in 0,6% of cases from the number of corresponding (before or after) interrupts.

At interruption immediately before or after the job is created an opportunity for the subject to capture the interruption is not yet of performance or nonperformance ™ elements of the job, and as performance or nonperformance ™ all tasks - in this case the gap internally fragmented does not occur and, consequently, psevdodeystviya not formed. In the second series of conditions were created for the more frequent formation of fragments.

Series 2. In this series, the test subjects were given a permanent program of work. On each sheet they had to draw only two given types of figures throughout the experiment, for example on one sheet only rhombuses and squares, on the other - triangles and crosses, but cyclically, i.e. Having finished drawing all six figures from the set, they had to draw them again. Interruption could occur at any time. In the experiment, 30 subjects participated. The total number of switches was 1192. The execution phenomenon was observed in 12,1% of cases, the phenomenon of unfulfillment - in 10,8% of cases from the total number of switchings. Thus, the number of phenomena investigated has increased by the order.

In accordance with the hypothesis, phenomena are formed in the presence of fragments - "radicals" of actions, which, articulating, form pseudo-actions. The task of the next pilot series was to demonstrate how, with the help of a special organization of activity, it is possible to prevent the formation of "radicals" and the occurrence of pseudo-events and thereby neutralize the effect of the interruption factor. In the experiment described below, it was planned to achieve this by creating a special purposeful activity in relation to the elements of the activity at which the interruption occurred. It was assumed that as a result of the inclusion of these elements in the organized structure of the internal plan, "radicals" will not be formed.

Video 3. Subjects were asked to specifically mediate their activities by incorporating the interruption in the deployed and fully operational with a special reception - associating the element on which the interruption occurs, with a clear, fixed representation. The subjects were

Learn a set of rules: one is the pelvis, two are the head, three are the lights, four are the holes in the cheese, five are the bed, six are the father-in-law, and fix the moment of rupture on each of the six figures drawn on one sheet. When drawing on another sheet, they should not have done this. In other aspects, the technique of this series coincided with the methodology of the second series. The experiment involved 11 people. Each task was interrupted for 440 times (according to the group of subjects). In the modified task (using rules), the subjects did not make any errors of the type being investigated, while in the second task these errors still occurred: 12,3% in the sum of both phenomena.

The phenomenon of indistinction. According to the hypothesis necessary condition for the phenomenon is not discriminating both of the following procedures and operational level implementation of a nih.Obschaya methodical scheme of the experiment was as follows.

Subjects were to draw a continuous curve using a special pen using the right hand. This curve was a rectangular "spiral" consisting of horizontal and vertical straight segments. The places of the kinks (turns) were set on the template blank with reference points, which also set the width of the corridor inside which it was necessary to draw a line. The pen was designed in such a way that ink spontaneously "spontaneously" leaked out of it, so stopping during the drawing process led to the formation of ink spots. Minimum line speed When the ink is not blooming, the line is 10 mm / s. The width of the corridor is 7 mm. With the left hand, the subject switched four selector switches with six fixed positions, but only two positions corresponding to 30 and 330 ° (-30) were working. Switchings were made only on the command of the experimenter, and the rule was that if, at the time of the command, the subject drew a horizontal spiral element, it was necessary to set the first and third switches to 330 °, and the second and fourth to 30 ° , If he was drawing a vertical element of the spiral, then vice versa. The switches were operated blindly: an opaque screen was installed on the switch panel. From the test subjects it was required, even at the moments of switching, to draw without spots and within the boundaries specified by the template. This requirement, as well as the lack of visual control of the switching provided simultaneous execution of the two procedures. Switching time and drawing speed were unlimited. The time of one experimental test was on average 6 min. During this time, the subject made about 100 switching. In the analysis of errors only those error-entanglements that were accompanied by the confidence of the subjects in the correctness of their actions were taken into account. Both the self-reports of the subjects and the surprise reaction testified about erroneous confidence, which was almost always possible to observe in the subjects, when they were shown incorrect results of switching - errors in switching. In the experiment randomly selected subjects from the age of 14 to 45 years participated: schoolchildren, students, flight mechanics of aircraft.

Series 1. The task of this series was to obtain a background level of the investigated phenomena and thereby show the fundamental possibility of their laboratory simulation. In the first series, the subjects had to work in accordance with the scheme described above. At the same time, they were required to switch selector switches by the shortest trajectory, i.e. Turning them to 60 °: from 30 ° to 330 ° and vice versa. The implementation of the two procedures did not cause subjects subjective difficulties. In this series, 22 subjects participated. The total number of switches for all subjects was 2200. The phenomenon of non-discrimination took place in 3,5% of cases from the number of switchings.

Series 2. In this series, it was necessary to create conditions under which the number of phenomena increases compared with the background level. In accordance with the hypothesis, when performing the procedure at the operational level, the subject should be insensitive to not very obvious fluctuations in this procedure. In other words, with the introduction of changes in the position of the controls, unnoticeable to the subject, some changes should not be noticed by them. The introduction of unnoticed changes in the position of the switches to the test subjects was achieved by overloading the activity: including another, third, in the activity, which was performed simultaneously with the first two - tapping the rhythm with the foot. The subject had to tap at a given rhythm at an arbitrary pace: three beats — pause — four beats — pause — three beats — and so on. The task of performing three procedures at the same time exceeded the ability of subjects to monitor the correctness of all procedures, so they made a lot of incorrect switching and did not realize it. Such a methodical technique was required in order to prevent the occurrence of an orientation reaction, which would have arisen if changes in the activity had been made from outside.

The second series consisted of three phases, which follow directly one after another. In the first phase of the test performed two procedures as in a series of 1, after several switching (8-12) introduces a third problem: the subject was manipulating switches and drawing '' spiral ', the rhythm knock - second phase. After making a few mistakes uncorrected (1-3 error) the problem with the 'rhythm' and the subject was shot again made only two procedures - the third phase.

In this series involved 25 people, each of them performs all experimental procedures second series twice. In 88% of cases after removal job knock 'rhythm' subjects did not notice that the switch is in the wrong position, and in the situation both of the only two procedures made the wrong switch, realizing them as correct. Recall that in the first series when the two procedures phenomenon occurred in 3,5% of cases. Thus, the number has increased by an order of phenomena.

Series 3. The objective of this series was to demonstrate that by using the special organization of the activity can be neutralized pair fragments and prevent occurrence of phenomena (psevdodeystvy). To achieve this it was planned by a special complexity of the procedure of manipulating switches. The complication would lead to the realization and implementation of adequate experience. In this series, the subjects

To set the switches to the set positions, turning them not to 60 °, i.e. By the shortest path, as in the previous series, but by 300 °. Turn the switch to 300 ° can be either one, but very uncomfortable movement, or at least two simple, but coordinated movements. At the same time, at the 0 ° mark, a pin-stop was installed, which does not allow the switch to be moved to the required position along the shortest path, and also to rotate it to an angle exceeding 300 °. In other respects, the methodology of this series did not differ from the methodology of the second series. The experiment is given with 18 subjects. Errors in this series were not observed. Attempts to switch incorrectly were, but they were corrected during the execution of the task.

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