Hydroplane
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Hydroplane

Hydroplane

Seaplane - aircraft capable of taking off and landing on water surface. Previously it was called seaplane.

Varieties of seaplanes are largely dependent on the version:

  1. Flying Boat - the plane, whose lower part of the fuselage is made of the type of boat. This feature leads to a rapid movement of water across the surface. The most successful instance - "Hughes Hercules".
  2. Amphibian - the only type that can be connected to all the types of seaplanes. It is established overland chassis that allows the machine to sit on the surface. Sometimes installed airbag, allowing to keep the amphibian on any surface. Be-8 - plane hydrofoil.
  3. Floatplane - may be a conventional or specially built airplane on which is mounted one, two or more floats for the movement and parking of the water surface.

The history of the airplane

The first attempts to create a seaplane began even before the first flight of the aircraft. In Russia alone, several aircraft were designed heavier than air, which can take off and land on the water. The design of the fuselage of the Mozhaysky aircraft resembles the fuselage of a flying boat. The very first seaplane, which managed to take off from the water, was designed in 1909 by the American Glenn Curtiss. It looked like an overland airplane, which was mounted on floats. And according to a special design a real seaplane is the development of Grigorovich DP 1913 year. The flying boat of the M-1 became the primary source of the development of hydroplanes as a separate type of aircraft. The heyday began in the period of 30-40-ies. When reactive aviation began to develop, seaplanes began to be squeezed into an ecological niche, as their speed-limiting indicators were much more economical. But since everything was changing in ordinary aviation, so everything changed in the sea. As a result of the huge work of Beriev Design Bureau, the designers succeeded in creating a successful reactive specimen of the A-40 "Albatross". At the same time, a civil modification of Be-200 was designed. Both aircraft for all characteristics were fully comparable with land planes. Such machines in the future are planned to be developed even more, since there are enough places around the world with poorly developed infrastructure and water surfaces.

During the First World tsarist Russia exploited the aircraft carrier "eagle", which was part of a squadron of flying boats M and M-9-5. These machines were an extension of the M-1 Dmitry Grigorovich. Speed ​​was 5-128 km / h, service ceiling - 4000 meters, and the flight did not exceed 5 hours. Sample M-5 not to arm because it was used as aerial reconnaissance and artillery fire as a proofreader with battleships.

Aircraft M-9 entered the "eagle" in 1916 year. In contrast to the M-5 they were armed with machine guns. In addition, the airplane could be placed bomb. In the bow gunner was placed with a machine gun. Pilot, drove the car, was in the main part, and next to it - mechanic. He was responsible for the discharge of bombs, which were suspended under the wings at the terminals. Reset by wire rope.

During the civil war between "red" and "white" river-based seaplanes operated by both parties. The Second World War has made some adjustments to the service. At that time there were torpedoes, actively used in combat vehicles. So we equip weapons and seaplanes, from which they renamed in torpedo.

Before the period of occurrence of aircraft with jet engines larger submarines staffed small-sized folding seaplanes that perform intelligence activities. The only exception was considered a project of Japanese engineers Seiran. Specially designed were several units of submarine aircraft carriers, which are carried on board 2-3 combat folding seaplane. But in practice the right to fight them and could not be applied, since at the time the Second World War was over.

Application and operation

When 30-40-ies on regular long-distance lines, have been widely used seaplanes began ousting their land-based aircraft. Before jet types seaplane replaced by screw-type. This reshuffle has occurred for several reasons:

  1. We began to appear new types of aircraft with increased range of applications.

  2. The post-war development of the airfield network.

  3. The advent of jet passenger aircraft on long-haul routes, which were significantly superior to flying boats for altitude and speed.

But this does not mean that seaplanes have been completely replaced, since they have their own niche and still. Even now, such aircraft are widely used on local airlines in hard-to-reach places where the design and construction of airfields with a firm runway is impossible or difficult. But in such places full of water bodies, suitable for takeoffs and landings of seaplanes. Some areas of the USA (Alaska) and Canada are considered as examples of such a region. Such territories are usually called taiga and tundra. There are enough rivers, marshes and lakes in them. Also as an example are the island states: Seychelles, Maldives and others. Because of this seaplanes are in high demand so far. Most of them are float modifications of land planes.

Flight control of amphibians is characterized by some features. In particular, with respect to the skills of piloting, landing and launching, water surface management. Therefore, to control such an apparatus, an ordinary pilot needs to undergo a specific qualification. Seaplane is a separate category of piloting. Similarly float seaplanes and flying boats are distinguished. Such a selection is caused by the characteristic differences in the mode of operation, since float seaplanes, unlike flying boats, are more dangerous and, depending on the water waves, may not take off.

Technical maintenance is much more expensive and more difficult, especially when it comes to amphibians. Marine aerodromes are much more expensive than ground ones, since airplanes need to be constantly treated with special anti-corrosion agents. Such airfields do not use ground equipment due to the characteristics of their own accommodation. In technical terms, the equipment used for mooring barrels, towing boats and so on.

Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane
.
upstairs