Hypersonic aircraft
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Hypersonic aircraft

Hypersonic aircraft (GZLA, GLA) - plane that is able to carry out flights in the atmosphere at a speed equal to or greater 5M indicator (M is the Mach number). He can maneuver using aerodynamic forces. Winged aircraft (LA), which has such a rate that may schedule the enormous range in comparison with the conventional type of aircraft. For HVA such planning becomes a "dynamic." Hypersonic vehicles are divided into subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic types.

implementation

In the entire history GZLA realized several test prototypes of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the Space Shuttle - orbital stages kosmoplanov multi-spacecraft. In addition, there are many projects of vehicles and aerospace systems (ACS) from the orbiter and the organisms or hypersonic passenger airliners and single-stage-kosmoplanov-game spaceships.

Bright representative of the first SFA unrealized projects - a project on the construction of military Singer partially-orbit spacecraft bomber "Zilberfogel" in Nazi Germany. At present no project of the spacecraft never implemented.

Hypersonic aircraft

In 60-ies in the US leading designers began to implement a program for the development and flight of the experimental rocket plane North American X-15, become in history the only SFA-plane for the next 40 years. It was he who made the first manned suborbital space flights.

Similar programs were developed in other countries. The closest of them were Spiral, Silberfogel, X-20 Dyna Soar, North American X-15. In the 21 century, cosmic tourism became quite popular among the rich. On this occasion private projects of suborbital space manned spacecraft began to appear. In 2004, the first spacecraft of the same type, Space Ship One, were launched into space. As the development of the program, the next step was applied - Space Ship Two. In the future, Virgin Galactic does not plan to stop there and is currently developing new types of ships. In addition, there are passenger suborbital hypersonic airliners (ZEHST, SpaceLiner and others).

Hypersonic Shuttle stage and game - spaceships and space plane

The second or only stage of exiting the orbit of all the winged game and Shuttle makes hypersonic flight in accordance with the descent trajectory, and some, and when lifting.

In 60-ies in the USSR and the US developed projects orbital kosmoplanov. But they have not been implemented. In the Soviet Union - Lapotok, LKS and the US - X-20 Dyna Soar provided for vertical launch on standard launch vehicles (LV), which became GZLA especially when returning. Between 80-2000-x on e in the US selected a comprehensive program for a hundred flights with Space Shuttle Space Shuttle orbital kosmoplanom. A similar, but runs on the pH device "Buran" (Soviet Union) only once flew into orbit. Before him the flight tried to make PBB and PBB-4-5.

With 90-ies and 2000-th there were many projects that were canceled prior to implementation. ACS and space transportation system: Russia - spaceship "PARC" and spaceplane "MAX"; United States - one-stage spaceship Venture Star and Rockwell X-30 (NASP); France and the European Union - spaceplane "Hermes"; Japan - HOPE spaceplane, ASSTS; Germany - "Senger-2»; UK - HOTOL; India - spaceplane Hyperplane and others.

In the United States still continues to develop flight into orbit of the project "Boeing X-37». The same experiments crank the United Kingdom, India, China and others.

Hypersonic drones

The main objective of the creation of unmanned SFA is working out possibilities of designing single and two stage reusable transport AKC future generations. In Germany, Australia, Russia and the United States there were virtually brought to the last degree of realization of unmanned SFA. Also previously existed, as now there are projects of combat and experimental cruise missile capable of reaching hypersonic speed "Boeing X-43» and «X-51», hypersonic flying lab "Igla" and "Cold», Falcon HTV-2, SHEFEX, Skylon.

Hypersonic warheads:

  1. US Department of Defense in November 2011 years has conducted a test of a new hypersonic gliding combat unit AHW.
  2. China in January 2014 announced previously conducted tests hypersonic combat unit, managed to develop a speed of up to Mach 10.
  3. Russia in June 2015 year announced its intention to develop and test GPLA "Yu-71».

Technology and Application

GLA may have different power plants, up to their complete absence. Among the most used engines operated liquid jet (LRE), hypersonic jet co-current (scramjet), solid rocket (SRM) and theoretically nuclear rocket engines (NRE). Since this technology has the potential, its development is conducted in many parts of the world. Naturally, the fact remains that the first test and full funding will be used for military purposes.

Space hypersonic system may have, or, conversely, do not have an advantage over operation steps with scramjet. Efficiency scramjet or theoretical specific impulse is from 1 thousand. Up to 4 thousand. S, while the missile has values ​​(according to 2009 year), with not more than 470. But this figure will rapidly diminish in accordance with the set speed will be further reduction in aerodynamic efficiency.

Air airliner with a scramjet will significantly reduce the time spent on the journey from point A to point B, which is also potentially makes available for 90 minutes anywhere in the world. But there is in such projects and gaps. Firstly, there is still not clear how such a unit will accommodate a much fuel to overcome great distances and whether such aircraft to gain sufficient altitude at which the sound effects are reduced to zero. In addition, there is the most important question - how such a project would cost.

Advantages and disadvantages of space research

There are several benefits of certain types of research, but mainly because of the low cognizability this sector mainly dominated by defects. The advantage of the device such as hypersonic aircraft X-30 is to reduce or eliminate transported oxidant. Since about 75% of the whole structure of the aircraft oxidizer. An exception to this will facilitate mass unit, and hence an increase in payload. In turn, this will reduce the cost of transportation of different cargo into orbit.

LRE or liquid rocket engine has significant differences high traction performance relative to the mass, which in turn allows the missile to reach the huge performance to deliver cargo into orbit. For applications scramjet ratio increases, leading to an increase in the mass fraction of the engine unit.

The main disadvantage is the high cost of not only the development of space programs and research of hypersonic devices, but also in further operation. Replenishment of fuel, replacement of parts and parts - all this together greatly increases the price of such programs.

Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane
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upstairs