Ilyushin Il-10



IL-10 - Soviet ground-attack aircraft, released under the final stage of World War II. The development of military aircraft engaged in CB Ilyushin. IL-10 - is a deeply modernized domestic IL-2, Released in 1944 was first raised in the air 18.04.1944 test pilot VK Kokkinaki During serial production, which began in the same 1944-m, it was made 4475 military Il-10 and 280-10 training Weale. For 1945 year produced more than 2,5 thousand. These stormtroopers. Such haste was dictated by the need to produce a powerful reinforcement of the army air force after the transition of Soviet troops in the offensive.


Since 1952 1955 of and production of IL-10 moved to Czechoslovakia in Sokovitse. There he was called in-33. Czech exports was led attack aircraft to Hungary, flattered, Bulgaria and Romania. On In-33 from 4 weapons were installed HC-23RM guns with ammunition - 150 shells. All in all the territory of the Czechoslovak issued over 1200 Stormtroopers In-33.

History of the IL-10

Because IL-2 successfully established itself during the Second World War, he had the idea of ​​modernization in a more powerful auxiliary fighter. Initially designing refers to the two main lines. The first question concerned the protection and strengthening properties bomber aircraft (heavy attack aircraft IL-8). But due to the tightened test aircraft in the series and missed. The second line touches a sharp improvement in the flight data with the same type of IL-2, armored protection and small arms. That IL-10 has become such a plane. He had fewer dimensions, improved aerodynamics and the engine is liquid cooled the AM-42.

IL-2 was a good fighter, but he is much inferior to the German air force and air defense forces. Armament also left much to be desired. Guns QI-23 and ShVAK were already ineffective against fascist armor.


By the fall of 43, the Air Force leadership to clarify that the delay with the decision of designing a new armored fighter is impossible. He just did was necessary for the summer offensive campaign 1944 years.

According to the plan, the new aircraft was more maneuverable and efficient. The wing of the IL-10 in comparison with the base model was thinner and had a number of different layouts. It was equipped with landing and take-off shields of the type "Schrenk" and ailerons "Freize". Cleaning of the chassis is similar to the Su-6, it is also retracted into the inter-sparse space of the central part. At the same time, the wheels rotate by 86 degrees. Thanks to this, the front resistance and the midship decreased. Also, the reduction of air resistance in flight was facilitated by the sealing of all the holes and cracks. Additional partitions were installed inside the fuselage to create separate compartments. As a result of the work done, the drag of the IL-10 is almost two times less than that of the base Il-2.

IL-10 video

For the protection of the aircraft and its combat survivability meet the established armored corps. They protect the main units of the fighter: power plant, fuel and oil tanks along with their mains. Protection of the arrow and the pilot is provided by shielded armor plates installed in the rear hemisphere. These include the armored wall, armored partition and the headrest of the pilot. Armor plates consist of two eight-millimeter armored plates with an air gap. They are much more effective to defend against German 20-mm shells. The side sheets protecting the shooter and pilot were thick in 6 mm, and the bottom side sheet was 5 mm. On top of the pilot covered armor thickness of 6 mm. Units of water and oil coolers covered 10-mm armor.

An additional positive effect on the survivability of the aircraft was carried out through the use of engineered fuel tanks and high-strength rods in the mechanism of the elevator control.

Designing a new aircraft fully relied on had experience with the operation of the IL-2. In IL-established 10 4 20 mm caliber cannon (later they were replaced by 23 mm). On the wing of the beam delivered eight RS-82 (rockets). Internal and external bombolyuk suspension were used as weapons with different-sized bombs weighing up to 600 kg.

IL-10 photo

Total empty weight of the aircraft is 4680 kg, the fully armed to two tons heavier. Subsequent upgrading related primarily to improve the firepower of the aircraft. Also, designers of OKB designed a training version of Wil-10. Combat modification machine 1951 year was Il-10M.

The first prototype flight in an airplane made B. Kokkinaki April 18 1944 years. In the factory test took less than a month, they ended May 13. A state tests were conducted at all in the short term - 2 weeks. Haste was initiated urgent need at the front of the aircraft.

According to the results of all the tests it turned out that the plane did not only meet the necessary parameters, but also surpassed them. Maximum horizontal IL-10 rate was higher than that taken as a basis Il-2, 150 to km / h. At an altitude of up to 2000 m air machine is largely inferior to the German single-seat fighter.

Before the first of May 1945 630, the army handed the Il-10. He was on the Air Force to 60-ies. It could only change the jets.

The plane barely had time to make sorties against German fighters, only in April 45 15 years could make war IL-10. They were used in the Far East against the Kwantung Army in August. The widespread use of the aircraft belonged to the period of the Korean War. BBC North Korea received IL-93 10, however, due to limited experience of Korean pilots in two months have less than twenty cars.


IL-10 photo


Advantages of IL-10


Compared with its predecessor, the IL-2-10 IL characteristics were much better. This has been achieved by better bypass hulls, use of improved landing gear design, the construction of high-speed sections of the wings and airframe, sealing all compartments of the aircraft. As a result, the new device has exceeded the IL-2 150 as much km / h at the maximum speed at 2300 m For this indicator, the domestic flight back to back close to its German rivals -. Fighter Bf.109.


On the basis of the use of IL-2 in combat in a new attack aircraft was radically redesigned armor. During the war, armored cab IL-10 was able to protect the crew against the penetration of 20-millimeter shells of the German guns. Armed with an arsenal was the same as in past versions of IL-2. In the early 1945, the first copies of the new assault aircraft displayed on the front of the IL-10, where they are immediately able to win the recognition of the pilots. Weight with bomb-missile weapons - 400 kg. It can be increased to a peak 600 kg.

IL-10 weapon Photo

Based on the increased agility and speed settings, IL-10 can be used not only as an attack aircraft, but also to short-range air combat with enemy aircraft. All these advantages have allowed significantly reduce the casualties of the Soviet Union aircraft during the Second World War. By the end of World War II in the USSR Armed Forces was the Il-120 10. A total of about 4600 produced aircraft of this class.


Design and modifications


 IL-10 - This is an all-metal double monoplane. In contrast to the IL-2, based on the statistics of the defeat of the aircraft, the cockpit of the air gunner was completely placed in the armored compartment. Exactly twice as compared with the base model, the armor thickness was increased - from 4 to 8 mm. The caliber of weapons was also increased from mm 12,7 to mm 20.


In 1951, after receiving combat experience in the Korean War, the leadership of the USSR decided to resume the production of an improved modification of the IL-10 aircraft, which was called IL-10M. First flew IL-managed 10M 2.07.1951.

IL-10 photos scheme

In contrast to the base model, the IL-10M was a little more along the length of the fuselage and wingspan. Also in the tail of IL-10M clearly distinguished keel wing thickness has been reduced for the sake of improving the performance of the aircraft. The changes were made and the interior: increased area of ​​the control surface.


The armor coating similar to IL-10, the armored body of the car was made of steel armor plates 4-8 mm thick. In the IL-10M used bulletproof 64 mm thick. Of the weapons were placed under the wings of the new gun H-23. Also completely replaced by navigational equipment. Payload weight remained unchanged. The avionics IL-10 M equipment for blind landing were added giropolukompas, radio compass, altimeter, which allowed to take off at any time and in any weather.


Modifications of IL-10M 146 pieces were produced. Serial production was completed in January 1955, and since 1956, the attack was removed from service due to the preference of using fighter-bombers.




The aircraft was a training and training apparatus for the training of pilots, ground-attack aircraft. The first tests were completed in the middle of 1945 year. Unlike the full-fledged Il-10, in the training version the shooter was converted to the instructor's cabin and the pilot, which housed a board with direction indicators, speed, altimeter, compass and air horizon. They were taken off the plane: an armored partition between the pilot and the shooter, a cassette for airguns, rocket launchers, a UBT machine gun. The hinged lid of the lantern was replaced by sliding back on the skids. Another difference was the placement of the instructor: in IL-10 he was facing the direction of the flight.

IL-10 retro photo

If we compare the performance characteristics, the IL-10U no way inferior to comrades, but the view from the cockpit especially during landing was less than that of a full-fledged attack aircraft. Given the huge number of issued IL-10, there is an urgent need to establish a training aircraft prototype. Therefore, IL-10U began to mass-produce, and all descended from the conveyor 280 of training models.

Avia B-33

Czechoslovakia received a license to attack aircraft production and the start of their produce under the name Avia In-33. Serial production was carried out by 1952 1956 During this time it was released over 1200 copies of analog IL-10, among which about fifty educational models, called CB-33. Czech version of the aircraft supplied the Warsaw Pact countries: Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary. By design, these planes are in no way different from the Soviet Il-10 and their modifications.


Use in the course of hostilities


The first military flight of IL-10 15.04.1945 made. The battle took part 15 attack aircraft, command of the operation was entrusted MI Earless. In 1945 it was used during the battles against the Kwantung Army in the Far East.

During the Korean War, actively carry out combat missions for the North Korean side. After 2 months after the invasion of South Korean troops from 93 stormtroopers were only combat-ready units 20. IL-11 10 North Korean Air Force aircraft were shot down by the UN. Two more combat aircraft were intercepted and handed over to the US for flight tests.




The first models of IL-painted 10 2 similarly IL-large spots of light brown, black and green colors. However 6.10.1944 was given an indication of paint assault planes in only camouflage, which consisted of dark gray stripes on a light gray background. Prior to that, such coloring had only fighters. Gray became constant, even in the winter painting white abolished.

Since 1945, the factory producing airplanes, it was necessary to move fully to the new paint system, and has already released copies were allowed to operate without repainting.

IL-10 photo

Therefore, at the final stage of the war against the German invaders in the sky at the front can be seen, and the gray and spotted the Il-10.

After the war, again revised livery combat aircraft and returned to the old pre-war standards. According to post-war changes all military aircraft painted on top of a dark green color. This color scheme has received the majority of IL-10, produced in the USSR in 1946-1948 years., And in all Czech-33. unmarked location has not changed. As in the time of war, they were placed on the bottom of the wings, the tail and on the sides of the fuselage.

Board number applied white paint on the fuselage near the stars. In wartime divisions and regiments were labeled his technique additional color marks the rapid identification of: rings, stripes, stars on the wings and fuselage. Often IL-10 drawn icons awards, which were assigned to the crew of the aircraft, and the Guards machines on the wings was placed special signs "Guards". All this by the end of 40-ies was prohibited due to the increase in the military sphere of privacy of the USSR and its entry into the phase of the Cold War. On airplanes were only the stars and numbers.

IL-10 characteristics:

Modification   IL-10
Wingspan, m   13.40
Length m   11.12
Height, m   4.18
Wing area, m2   30.00
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   4650
  normal takeoff   6300
engine's type   Mikulin AM AP 1-42
Power, hp  
  flight   X 1 1750
  takeoff   X 1 2000
Maximum speed km / h  
  near the ground   507
  on high   551
Cruising speed, km / h   436
Practical range, km   800
Rate of climb, m / min   625
Practical ceiling, m   7250
Crew   2
Armament:   Two 23-mm guns ВЯ-23 or НС-23 (mounted on the wing) and two 7.62-mm ShKAS machine guns
 one 20-mm gun UB-20 or 12.7 machine gun UBS with rear
 up to 8 PC-82 or PC-132
 bomb load - normal version - 400 kg (2 FAB-100 in bomb bays and 2 FAB-100 on external suspensions); reloading - 600 kg (2 FAB-50 in compartments and 2 FAB-250 on external hangers)



OKB Ilyushin Aircraft

IL 10, as the whole range of aircraft IL, built on the basis of IL 2. The first prototype IL 10 flew on April 20 1944 years and a month later he entered the state tests, which showed the flight and handling characteristics than the standard IL2. Significantly increased the maximum speed of the aircraft, its increased stability and maneuverability.
At the same time, the Sukhoi Su tested 6 and the two cars made a comparative test.
They did not reveal the winner.
Yielding for flight data SU6 superior competitor for combat stress, but in favor of IL10 said its technological continuity with IL2 that allows you to quickly implement the aircraft into production.
The aircraft produced in the USSR and in the socialist countries, for example in Czechoslovakia, where more than 1000 aircraft was built.


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