IL-14. A photo. Characteristics. History.


IL-14 - a Soviet short-haul twin-engine piston aircraft. I began to develop in 40-ies because of the need to replace outdated Il-12 and 2-Lee. The first flight was made in July 13 1950 years.

After IL-12 state testing staff OKB Ilyushin We began work on the creation of a class of passenger aircraft that would be able to make a landing, even in case of failure of one engine. The first copy of the IL-14 was very similar to the IL-12. A significant difference was perhaps that the size and mass of the flying machine. Initially, the designers of the plans was the idea to establish a plane 2 piston engine, air-cooled DB-73, but the project was shelved due to the impracticability of this type of engine the desired objectives of the new aircraft.

History of the IL-14

After the state tests of the previous version of Il-12, the designers of Ilyushin's bureau started designing a new device that can make a safe landing with one working engine. The first developments were superficially resembling the Il-12 aircraft. The difference was the installation of engines of the type ASh-73 with increased take-off power. But further studies have shown that an increase in thrust does not solve the set tasks. For a flight with one working motor, a new wing was developed, and its mechanization also improved aerodynamic qualities. To reduce the air resistance during takeoff, the chassis system was improved, which made it possible to remove the racks faster. We carried out the work on fluting screws.


The first flight of the prototype machine prototype IL-14 50 held in July, under the direction of V. Kokkinaki. This flight lasted only 15 minutes due to overheating of the heat exchanger. After that it has been redesigned exhaust system, which was merged with the air. It has also been extended and vertical tail, which in turn improved the quality of management. Alterations undergone and the cabin was increased glass area for a better view.

Studies have been initiated by the State Commission winter 1951 years and finished in August 52 years. The result was a report in which it was noted that the new machine is far superior in terms of the previous model.


operation of the device in a variety of climatic conditions has been initiated from 1952 years. All flight tests showed the aircraft with the best hand. The car was faster and more cost-effective than IL-12. In December this year 52 liner was recommended for serial production, and the issue was launched in the autumn of 53 years by decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Passengers IL-14 began carrying November 1954 years.


In the future, the aircraft could accommodate from 24 to 32 passengers on board. In addition, many special-purpose modifications have been developed and manufactured. This airliner was actively operated on Soviet airlines until the end of the 80s, after which it was decommissioned. Such a long service life can be explained by the fact that this machine was reliable and of high quality, but the main reason was that there was nothing to replace it with. Repairs of Il-14 aircraft were ceased to be engaged only in 86 years.

Features and application of IL-14

Currently in Russia there are only three types of machines Il-14, which can continue to fly. All three handsets recovered enthusiasts forces. All financial costs are also laid on their shoulders. Recovered liners are based on small airfields in our country.

IL-14 has been used in hostilities between the Egyptians and the Israelis. With this Ila transported officers, one such flight was shot down by a fighter. According to official figures in military conflicts were shot down for at least two devices, in addition, a lot of cars were destroyed on the ground. For civil traffic Il-14 used in many countries around the world.

IL-14 video

By creating multiple versions of IL-14 used for military, civil and research tasks. With it, the poles were conducted research, in addition, IL-14 widely used by geologists and cartographers. Wide application and great flight characteristics make this unit one of the most outstanding among all the world's aircraft line.

IL-14 photo

A possible solution was the engine AL-82FN. In addition, we designed a new wing, changed his landing mechanization. The new wing has allowed to raise a quick tearing machine from the runway. The climb was a bit faster by reducing the time to clean the chassis and reduce feathering propeller. When you save the layout features of improved aircraft passenger cabin Front Range exploited center of gravity, which in turn made it more stable on the ground and made it possible to remove the tail support.

13 July 50 year was the flight of the first experienced IL-14 with the engines of the AS-82FN (commander Vladimir Kokkinaki). The flight lasted 15 minutes due to the increased temperature in the air-heat system. For the second aircraft of the experimental class (IL-14P), a new exhaust and heat system was designed in one unit. Increased the volume of vertical tail and increased visibility for the pilot. The first flight of the Il-14P aircraft was completed by 01.10.1950. On December 2, six months later, state trials began. And upon their completion 30 August 52 year concluded that the IL-14 is more effective in piloting and landing.

Regarding the wing of the Il-14, one can note its unique aerodynamic layout. The profile span of the CP-5 was constant. But thanks to the 3-degree chord (reverse sweep along the line), stall characteristics have improved and the possibility of stall flows during maneuvers at low speeds has been eliminated. The boundary layer in the main part of the wing became thicker, and it was here that the stream stall appeared. Gradually, with an increase in the angle, it shifted towards the end of the wing. Thanks to this, the ailerons remained highly efficient to maintain the continued takeoff at low speeds.

IL-14 ustrarel

At the same time we developed a sustainable use of double-pump hydraulic system. Operating pressure was 10,8 MPa, and a reduction of hydraulic losses resulting in reduced time and release retraction twice. Fixed an improved propeller AV-50 allowed to reduce the negative resistance has rendered propeller engine.

AB-50 - a construction with double action.

  1. Firstly, the transfer of the blades under the action occurred enhanced oil pressure involved, without the centrifugal force. This was equally as large and in small steps.
  2. Secondly, the transition of the blade feathered position or conclusion of it was accomplished with the help of forced fryuger pump and cylinder screws specialized design.

Much work EDO staff assigned to the improvement of the anti-icing (antifreeze) system, integrated air-heat and heating plan. By bringing it all together, it was decided to create a whole range of anti-icing system, working through the exhaust gases from the engine. The exhaust system is composed of collectors, similar to half-ring. They were not related to each other, separately connected to the nozzles placed on the left and right sides of the engine.

Nozzles in turn is connected to a heat exchanger installed in the left and right parts of the nacelle. This placement was more successful than in the IL-12. The heated air is directed from the heat exchangers in the anti-icing system. In some embodiments heated air leaving the tubes in heating or in both systems.

IL-14 Salon

Immediately after all the improvements and modifications of the aircraft began flight testing on resistance to different weather conditions. Ultimately, IL-14P described himself as a safe and reliable aircraft that can sit on a small runway even unpaved. Fairly economical. The serial production of the aircraft enrolled after routine tests of passage in the GK NII VVS thirtieth December 1952 years.

Regular passenger flights began two years later. In 1955 year it became the main trunk type of aircraft IL-14 for "Aeroflot". IL-14P on 18 places and IL-14M on 24 passenger seats were the main passenger aircraft on domestic and international flights. But in the early 60-x in the USSR appeared turbine passenger aircraft An-24, which in turn transferred the IL-14 for use exclusively on local airlines. The number of seats on the aircraft gradually increased from the 28 36 to places.

Variants of IL-14

  1. IL-14S, IL-14SI, IL-14PS, IL-14SO - airplanes increased comfort

  2. IL-14G - freight (maximum transported weight - 3500 kg)

  3. IL-14T - Transport

  4. IL-14ZOD - transport-landing

  5. IL-14FK, IL-14FKM - reconnaissance and photography.

  6. IL-14M - export the plane to 24 place. Designed and exported 119 machines.

  7. IL-14LL - flying laboratory

Aircraft IL-14 have invested a great contribution to the development of civil aviation in the USSR. Thanks to them, the carriage of passengers is much increased. With improved radio navigation equipment and created terrestrial radio equipment "Aeroflot" was able to quickly adapt to passenger traffic.

IL-14 nose

The period of operation of IL-14 lasted until 80-ies. They were mostly local destination flights in Siberia and the Far North. Already in the early 90-ies spent a long time the machine began to massively write off. Use of IL-14 time took more than thirty years. This is due to the fact that a long time was not able to replace it with patterns.

Repair work was carried out in two factories: 1953 - aviaremzavod №402 in Bykov, 1957 - №407 factory in Minsk. And in the year 1986-14 repair Il was discontinued. there were three machines working in Russia at this time. IL-14 RA-0543G was at the airport Gorelov, the other two IL-14T RA-1114K and IL-14T FLA-01707 - at Moscow airport on Orlovka.

Mass production

City Tashkent, №84 Plant: in the year 1954 28 14-Il was built in 55-m - 52 instance, and in 1956 115 built flying machines. Between 57 58 by year 118 constructed IL-14P. Along with these types of built Il-14T. 65 aircraft were built.

IL-14 cabin

The plant №30 in Moscow in the period from the 1956 1958 year by 375 was released IL-14P. Along with him on separate bases were constructed IL-14T and IL-14FK. If the first type of 291 fired unit, the second just 31. The total number of generated IL-series aircraft was 14 1348 aviamashin, of which the USSR had 1065 plants, Czechoslovakia - 203, and in the GDR - 80.

In addition to civilian use, IL-14 and used for combat purposes. The well-known fact that during the Six Day War between Egypt and Israel were shot down 2 aircraft in its class, and another three were destroyed on GDP.


IL-14 harektreristiki

Length m 21,31 (IL-14P), 22,31 (IL-14M and later models)
Wingspan, m 31,7
Height (tail), m 7,8
Engines Shvetsov Ash 2 82 1950T power hp
Max. speed km / h 430
Cruising speed, km / h 345
Range of flight, km 1250
Flight height, m 6500 (with oxygen equipment)
Empty weight of the aircraft, kg 12700
Maximum takeoff weight, kg 18500
Maximum number of passengers 36
Crew 2–5


Civil Aviation

OKB Ilyushin Aircraft

At the end of 1945 years after successful completion of state tests IL12, CB Ilyushin design team continued engineering research on improving the flying qualities of its first passenger aircraft, improving the safety of the flight.
The Bureau began work on solving complex problems for the time takeoff twin-engine aircraft in case of emergency failure of one engine on take-off (during takeoff or immediately after take-off) ..
In his scheme, and the aerodynamic properties of the first IL 14 12 IL repeated, differing from it only slightly larger in size and weight. On it were the two most powerful at the time of piston engine ASH73. The increased aircraft capacity has increased its security and allow him to continue to rise, even in the event of failure of one engine.
After IL 14 performed many difficult trials and has established itself at its best, its serial production has been increased, and then the technical documentation handed over to Czechoslovakia, where he produced under the brand AVIA - 14 and the GDR.
Just great help IL14 had to learn the Arctic and Antarctic ,, if necessary, maintaining the link between the mainland and the polar stations.
Given the wide range of application of various modifications IL14 for such a long time and its high flight - technical capabilities, the aircraft can be safely put on a par with the outstanding examples of the world of aircraft.