Ilyushin Il-46


IL-46 - medium-range bomber aircraft with straight wings, equipped with two turbojet engines AL-5.

24.03.1951 the Council of Ministers was entrusted OKB Ilyushin jet speed development of medium-range bomber. The aircraft was required to build as quickly as possible, so the Ilyushin began the design of two devices: one with swept wings, the second - Direct.


More profitable from an economic point of view looked aircraft with straight wings, which have smaller dimensions and greater range than with swept prototype.

The basis of the Il-46 constructive scheme laid a well-proven aerodynamic and structural arrangement bomber Il-28. Draft project under this scheme was ready in October 1951 Sweep of the second instance was be 35 °. This wing had thickened root portion, which gave him the necessary strength and stiffness performance. This in turn allowed to place in the cavities of the wing fuel tanks. The preliminary draft of the aircraft with swept wings in the bureau approved in December of 1951

The first flight model of the IL-46 had a twin-engine design Orthoptera sredneplana swept plumage. He had the external similarity with IL-28, only was heavier and overall size. The aircraft received two motor TP FOR (AL-5). To maintain a normal tricycle landing gear with a scheme based on the front rack, engines were placed in front of the gondola, which imposed far from the front wing. Tap hot gas pipes provide about five meters long.

The ability to operate the IL-46 aircraft on unpaved runways led to the construction of a kind of chassis design. Each strut main pillars fastened single wheel. During cleaning landing gear moved in different directions: external stand with the wheel was removed in advance, and the inner wheel - back on the flight. Wheels performs a rotation angle 90 ° and went into the fairing of the lower parts of the engine nacelles under the tailpipes. Promotion of the main wheels before landing by a hydraulic system of the aircraft.

The crew of three people was in two airtight cabins (fore and aft). Places pilot and navigator-operator were located in the bow as a tandem. They were not separated on the starboard side by a wall to ensure communication between the pilot and the navigator. All crew members had armor protection, the total weight of the aircraft armor is about 880 kg. The units with on-board equipment were placed behind the control cab. The lower part of the fuselage was occupied by a compartment of chassis elements with an antenna block of a sight-sighting radar. Further on 14,4 m of the fuselage length were placed in two rows of fuel tanks (14 tanks with a total capacity of 20,6 t of fuel). In the area of ​​the center of gravity was a bomb-bay, the length of which was 5,7 m.


After the second group of fuel tanks, toward the tail, the equipment compartment was located. The armored hermachine arrow with a movable stern cannon was at the end of the fuselage. The bomb compartment had dimensions that allow carrying bomber armament along with air bombs weighing up to 6000 kg. The optimal version of the bomb load is 3000 kg. The structure of the movable fodder unit consisted of two guns of the caliber 23 mm. From a similar installation on the IL-28, it was distinguished by a large ammunition (320 shells against 225) and an increased angle of fire (up to 105 ° in the sides instead of 70 ° on IL-28). The optical sighting station (OPS) was also modernized, which increased the possibility of using small arms.

Defensive armament planned to equip the radar gun as a small addition to the OPS. Electro cannon fodder installing IL-K8 installed on IL-46, designed directly into the Ilyushin Design Bureau. The defense of the front hemisphere was provided by two stationary cannons 23 mm, which were placed on the left side under the workplace navigator. Firing conducted pilot.

The aircraft was able to work even on one engine. Power of each motor provides separate group of fuel tanks (tanks front group - the right engine, rear - left). To protect the fuel compartments from fires and explosions, they nadtoplivnoe space filled with inert gas.

The cabins functioning air conditioning system supplies oxygen to the employment of crew members present, domestic equipment. Workstations equipped with ejection seats. Flight and navigation, sighting, radio communication equipment, together with anti-icing system was allowed to operate the IL-46 in any weather.


On the boards can be installed rocket propellant boosters, which are reset after the start. The bomber is equipped with a brake parachute.

The first prototype IL-46 was built at the end of 1951 Terrestrial factory tests continued throughout the winter at Zhukovsky airfield and 3.03.1952-46 Il Bomber first flew test pilot VK Kokkinaki.

The State Commission gave opinion on the conformity of performance of the new aircraft the declared data.

Later on IL-46 installed engines with afterburner, which caused an increase in the total thrust and take-off weight. The tail section placed two accelerators for rapid takeoff. At the same time, the Tupolev Tu-Office issued 16 bomber with a much better performance tactical aircraft. Preference is given to the government decision Tu-16, and that it allowed to the series, and all work on the IL-46 stopped. The second copy with swept wings did not have time to finish. The only IL-46 after a couple of years after the closing of the work cut into scrap metal.

IL-46 characteristics:

Modification   IL-46
Wingspan, m   29.00
Length m   24.50
Height, m   4.78
Wing area, m2   105.00
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   26300
  normal takeoff   41840
  maximum take-off   52425
engine's type   2 TRD AL-5
Thrust, kgf   X 2 5000
Speed, km / h  
  maximum   928
  cruising   700
Flight distance, km   4970
Practical ceiling, m   12700
Crew   3
Armament:   4 x 23 mm HP-23: to protect the front hemisphere, two fixed front guns mounted side by side on the left side of the fuselage under the navigator's cabin; in the rear fuselage of the aircraft, the aft gun installation of the Il-K8 with remote electro-hydraulic drive of two moving guns (2 x 320 cartridges).
 Bomb load on the inner suspension: normal - 3000 kg, maximum - 6000 kg.



OKB Ilyushin Aircraft

I was impressed with such a strong armor IL-46, but in a sense it serves and its disadvantage. Flight performance is also not the worst.


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