Ka-22. A photo. History. Characteristics


Rotorcraft Ka-22 was designed OKB. Kamov in the early 60-ies of XX century. NATO codenamed "hoop." The design of the helicopter uses two rotors and two turboprop engines, the outstanding total capacity of 5900 hp takeoff weight rotorcraft was 37 tons.


November 7 1961, on the rotorcraft Ka-22 set a world speed record flight. Parameter reached 356,3 km / h and not beaten up today. Supervised flight that day DK Yefremov.


History of the Ka-22


During the Cold War, the Soviet Armed Forces required to replenish its arsenal of aircraft that can move quickly tactical ballistic missiles and launchers in the area are not available for landing.


The Union leadership commissioned the design of such aircrafts at once by two design bureaus: Mile and KB them. KAMOVA. The Milev bureau was developing the Mi-6 helicopter on the basis of a single-screw scheme with one carrier central screw and one tail. Design Bureau named after Nikolai Kamov decided to design a completely new type of aircraft with the fuselage of the Li-2 and bearing screws that were placed on the wings. The approval of this project from the government of the USSR was received in 1954 year. Refinement of flight performance was held in 1956 year. In particular, the new rotorcraft was to transport a cargo weighing up to 5000 kg for a flight range of about 700 km, 4000 kg - about 1500 km and at the same time have a maximum speed within 350-400 km / hour.


Static tests of the Ka-22 TsAGI began in the beginning of the year 1957. The first copy of the flight test aircraft factory assembled № 938 and sent to flight test platform OKB. Kamov in 1958 year. Before lift rotorcraft in the air had significantly modifying it, so the first flight had to be postponed for a while. The first tests of free hovering began in the early summer of 1959 years.


Complete the first mission rotorcraft Ka-22, which was attended by pilots DK Yefremov and VM Evdokimov, mechanic EI Filatov, chief engineer VB Al'perovich experimenter YI Emelyanov, held 20.04.1961. This flight marked emergency: because flutter of rotors from the left propeller broke half meter piece of the blade. Thanks to the professional actions of the crew Ka-22 barely managed to land in the mode of an emergency landing.


During the tests we went out minor flaws: constantly had to do the replacement of engines and gearboxes, change the position of the rotor blades. The first flight with the speed 200 km / h at an altitude of 1000 m was made a test pilot Yu Garnaeva 23.09.1961.


24.10.1961 - to rotorcraft Ka-22 set a world record for carrying capacity. Load weight m 16,485 2557 raised to a height of m.


28.08.1962 - conducting a stopover at the airport Dzhusaly, surpassing rotorcraft from Tashkent, the capital of the USSR, the Ka-22 (number 01-01) crashed. The crew of seven people died on the spot. These were the same people that for the first time raised the rotorcraft in the air. As the Commission of Inquiry found, the disaster caused a break in a cable control system design.


After a year 2, 16.07.1964, during flight tests in a plane crash was another instance of Ka-22 (number 01-03). A turn to the right, the aircraft went into a steep dive. The crew all the forces trying to align the rotorcraft, but their efforts have not resulted in success. During the fall from 01-03 nacelle broke away right then rotorcraft in the air began to crumble apart. Killed 2 person: Technician AP Rogov and the pilot SG Brovtsev.


Instability during the flight, a high risk of accidents, sometimes the complexity and unpredictability of the management - in total, these factors were not allowed to commercially produce the Ka-22. As a result, the design won a duel for the state order Milevsky helicopter. Of the four machines produced at this time is not spared none: two burned in the crash, two sent for recycling. The last instance of rotorcraft Ka-22 cut at the Tashkent aircraft plant at the end of 90-x.


Design rotorcraft after such unsuccessful Ka-22 development in this area has been closed for a long time. Only in 1972, the Design Bureau. Mile submitted a draft rotorcraft Mi-30, which, unlike the Ka-22, had a pair of rotary screw design.


Features Ka-22


The structure of the carrier system includes wings with two rotors at their ends. Low-speed flight and helicopter vertical landing were provided by the operation of the main propellers, which produced the necessary thrust. Flaps Ka-22 during a slow flight and landing rotate vertically to 90 ° in order to minimize the loss of traction as a result of blowing wings with screws. The higher the speed of the aircraft, the more load in the production of the lifting force falls on the wings. Thus, at maximum speeds due to the wings, about 90% of the lifting force of the rotorcraft is generated.


It is due to such features Ka-22 and similar structures on aircraft, in comparison with the helicopters can reach speeds of more in absolute value. Ka-22 reached the speed limit on the tests in 370 km / h. At high speed operation is performed unloading rotors, which also displays vertibirds ahead of their rivals.


The control system can be defined as aircraft and helicopter elements. Cyclic change in the angle of the blades of aircraft propellers and rudder deflection characteristic longitudinal control. Lateral control is provided aileron, change the collective pitch rotors. Directional control - due to deflection of the control lever and changing the pitch of the differential right and left rotors.


Also present rotorcraft control system (CS) mode of the engine, SU collective pitch propellers, automatic hydraulic SU step traction screws, by which the transition of power from the rotor to the traction with increasing speed flight.


In the cockpit there are such controls: the steering wheel, the pedals, the gas sector and the common gas lever. The levers are connected by a rigid wiring system to the spools of the hydraulic amplifiers, which act on the Ka-22 controls. It's safe to say that flying a rotorcraft is harder than an airplane or a helicopter. The creation of such a heavy control scheme by designers required the development of a simulator for test pilots. Although such a simulator in the Kamov bureau was created, the project due to many defects and two wrecks Ka-22 had to close, the serial production of this model did not begin.


Ka-22 became the basic model for the development of heavy commercial rotorcraft:

• Ka-34 - has a transverse design and 4 gas turbine engines operating with coaxial main rotor;

• Ka-35 - has lifting rotor and propulsion turbojet engines.


Ka-22 characteristics:

Modification   Ka-22
Wingspan, m   23.80
Diameter of the main rotor, m   22.50
Length m   26.97
Height, m   10.04
Wing area, m2   105.00
Weight, kg empty   25840
Weight, kg normal takeoff   37500
Weight, kg maximum takeoff   42500
Fuel Weight, kg   6000
engine's type   2 GTD D-25ВК
power, kWt   X 2 4101
Maximum speed km / h   356
Cruising speed, km / h   270
Practical range, km   1100
Practical ceiling, m   4250
Static ceiling, m   3500
Crew   5
Payload:  Maximum load carried - kg 16500,
 Normal landing load - 5000 kg



Ka-22. Gallery. 

Ka-22 in flightKa-22 side viewKa-22 before takeoff

Ka-22 before landing on the runwayKa-22 prepares for takeoffKa-22 after take-off from runway

Ka-22 photo frontKa-22 in flight sideKa-22 in flight



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