Ship Craft "Dirk"
Ship Craft "Dirk"

Ship Craft "Dirk"


"Dirk" (export name "Chestnut", index GRAU 3М87) - Soviet anti-aircraft missile artillery complex, which is intended for the defense of stationary objects and ships from air targets (helicopters, airplanes), high-precision weapons (anti-ship missiles) and for firing small-sized ground and marine targets. The complex is distinguished by the absolute automation of combat work: from the detection of a target to its destruction.

Ship ZRAK "Dagger" 4343




ZRAK was created in the late 1970s at the Instrument Design Bureau (chief designer A.G. Shipunov). At the Tula Machine-Building Plant, its serial production took place. JSC "RATEP" is a manufacturer of the radar system of the combat module. NIIFP was responsible for the development of onboard equipment.


Even during the design, the designers decided not to dwell on the development of only artillery or only missile RZK. He read that new weapons must combine the best qualities of both systems. At one time, Tula designers have already created a similar system - the land-based TUNUSK. Therefore, the "Dirk" was designed taking into account ready-made developments from "Tunguska". In addition, the designers used ready-made units (some of them were transferred to the "Dirk" without any changes). But be that as it may, the missile system consists of most of the elements that were designed from scratch. He entered service in 1989 year.

Ship ZRAK "Dagger" photo

In 2016, the new generation of ammunition for thirty-millimeter automatic guns was put into service, their distinctive design feature is the use of plastic masters. Concern "Tehmash" will develop fragmentation-tracer and high-explosive fragmentation projectiles for the fleet. New ammunition will increase the survivability of the trunks.




Chestnut / Dirk CRAF is installed on:

  • the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov) (256 SAM, 8 SPARK);

  • heavy nuclear missile cruisers "Peter the Great" and "Admiral Nakhimov" (144 SUR, 6 SPARE);

  • 11540 “Yaroslav the Wise” and “Fearless” project patrol ships (64 SAM, 2 SPARK);

  • a large anti-submarine ship called "Admiral Chabanenko" (64 SAM, 2 SPARK);

  • patrol ship "Steregushchy" project 20380 (32 SAM, 1 SPARE);

  • frigates of the Talwar type of the 11356 project, built specifically for the Indian Navy (64 SUR, 2 SIGNATURE).

Ship ZRAK "Dagger" characteristics



The modification of the Kashtan-M anti-aircraft missile artillery complex compared to its counterpart (“Dirk”) due to a faster speed at pointing the missile-artillery installation is characterized by a shorter reaction time. In addition, it differs in enhanced performance (in 2-3 times).


Tactical and technical characteristics ZRAK "Dirk"



Range of damage:

  • 500 - 4000 m - artillery weapons;
  • 1500 - 8000 m - rocket armament.

Ship ZRAK "Dagger" photo

The reaction time is 6-8 seconds.

Acquisition range for CRP support with EPR = 0,1 m² and flight height H ≥ 5 m: 9 km

The number of simultaneously fired targets (depending on the number of combat modules): 1

The rate of fire - 10 thousand shots per minute.

The radar channel guidance mm range provides accuracy - 2 - 3 meter.



  • SAM (two-stage solid propellant) 9М311-1 with non-contact target sensor and fragmentation warhead.

  • Command module for target detection, target distribution and data output to combat modules.

  • Two 30-mm six-barreled anti-aircraft gun AO-18K.

  • Storage and reloading system, which provides storage of 32 missiles in special launch canisters, lifting them to the combat module, and also releasing them into the cellar.

  • A combat module (from one to six), which performs automatic targeting, auto tracking, generating information for firing and firing artillery or missile weapons.


To protect the rocket from the powder gases on the trunks there are special cylindrical casings. The air defense missile system uses auger-free projectile feed.

First of all, in the Kashtan-M modification, the zone of damage by the antiaircraft guided 9М311-1Э was increased in range and height.

Ship ZRAK "Dagger" cartridge

Range of damage:

  • 500 - 4000 m - anti-aircraft machine;
  • 1500 - 10 000 m - anti-aircraft guided missile.


Height affected area:

  • 2 - 6000 M - anti-aircraft guided missile;
  • 0 - 3000 m - anti-aircraft machine.


The take-off distance for the maintenance of the SAC with EPR = 0,1 sq. M and the flight height H≥5 m: 11,4 km.




Joint processing of signals from optical-electronic and radar target tracking and anti-aircraft guided missile with automatic selection of the appropriate mode and provides high immunity. In the course of the tests, which took place at the end of 1980's, the Dirk "Dirk" was declared ineffective due to its large size and weight. In addition, in practice, he simply did not have time to perform the addition of anti-ship anti-ship missiles that were not shot down by their missiles with automatic weapons. As a result, a large weight in most cases did not allow to place such installations instead of the anti-aircraft artillery complex AK-630М. On the cruisers of the 1293 project, which were planned to be laid out at the beginning of the 90s, it was decided to abandon the SAME in favor of operating the Dagger air defense system, as well as anti-aircraft guns. Then it was supposed to eliminate the main drawback of the SCOR in the modernized version of M.


ZRAK is used on the patrol ships of the project 11354М and 11540, the cruiser Admiral Nakhimov, Peter the Great and BOD Admiral Chabanenko. Already from the second ship of the 20380 project, the anti-aircraft missile artillery complex was not installed as a result of the impossibility of its simultaneous deployment with the Redut air defense system (based on C-350) with the possibility of using different types of long-range and medium-range missiles. For defense against PPH, 2 ZAK AK-630М are used.

Ship ZRAK "Dagger" shot

But this does not mean that the concept itself has been abandoned: the 22350 frigates of the 2 project are placed with the Palash.




CIRK "Dirk" successfully used by the Russian Navy to protect stationary objects and ships from anti-ship high-quality enemy missiles. This PSRA is effective in terms of firing at small land and sea targets.

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