Kosmoplan
other
Kosmoplan

Kosmoplan

Spaceplane is the second stage of aerospace systems, which put into orbit by the rocket and its own engines. To lift rocket boosters used stepwise type with vertical take-off using a winged stage aerospace systems. Chance of a horizontal take-off, which is activated at the start of the air system.

The world's first kosmoplanom that qualitatively performed its tasks, was the American unit with the designation X-15. It was produced in 60-ies of the last century and during the years 20 was the only hypersonic aircraft. The machine is made 15 flights, 13 of them took place at the height of 80 kilometers from land. 2 flight took place beyond space at an altitude of 100 kilometers, they were suborbital flights and the pilots received the status of astronauts.

This was followed by further developments of such devices in the territory of the USSR and the US, but in the end they have not been particularly successful. Further, the Soviet Union made the unit LKS "Lapotok" and the United States - X-20. Implementation start was held in the framework of the Soviet project "Spiral", with a horizontal takeoff was made with the first stage of the winged type.

Over 20 years, 1980-2000-th to th gg., The US carried out an extensive program consisting of 100 flight orbital plane "Space Shuttle". Similarly, the unit in the Soviet Union was a project "Buran", which carried out only one flight. Before using the "Buran" were involved prototypes with the designation of the BOR and BOR-5-4.

In 90-2000-x and s they are designed, but were canceled projects kosmoplanov reusable. Thus, Russia was made spaceplane "MAX", which ran from the plane. The EU had the spaceplane "Hermes", Japan controlled the apparatus HOPE, but access to the orbit implemented prototype HIMES, who had the opportunity to start and horizontal landing. Similarly kosmoplanom Germany had labeled "Senger-2». India has also produced its own spaceplane Hyperplane, it gets RN.

At the moment, actively continues to develop kosmoplanov so in the United States, special attention is paid to the development of Boeing X-37, an experimental apparatus which starts on RN. India and China do not lag behind in these developments.

Not so long ago began to manufacture aircraft for private tourist flights into space. Due to this, several reusable suborbital aircraft arose. The first flight of a private tourism apparatus was made in 2004, it was the Space Ship One, which was developed by Virgin Galactic. Also developed vehicles LYNX and XCOR, these spaceplanes will be used for tourism purposes, without reaching the lines of space.

Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane
.
upstairs