Cruise missile caliber: photos, specifications, video
Cruise missile caliber: photos, specifications, video

Cruise missile caliber: photos, specifications, video

OCD "Caliber" (previously merged with OCD "Turquoise" - Russian-made cruise missiles, according to the NATO SS-N-27 codification "Sizzler" (in translation from English - "inferno", hot day). They were created and produced by the OKB "Innovator".

History of creation

The Caliber family of missiles was created on the basis of 2 projects: the strategic nuclear nuclear cruise missile 1975М1984 with combat radius 3 thousand km and the competition Alpha anti-ship missiles (OCR "Turquoise") developed over the course of 10 to 2,5 a year.

Initially, only a supersonic anti-ship missile “Yakhont” took part in the competition OCR “Turquoise”, but its creation was delayed, as a result of which the rocket turned out to be very expensive. The 3М10 project had problems due to the Treaty on the Reduction of Short and Medium-Range Missiles. In 1986, the Innovator Design Bureau, on its own initiative, proposed a non-nuclear version of the KS-122 maritime version of the missile for the competition. But because of the subsonic attack speed, she did not accept the selection committee. Work continued, and in 1990, a new version with a supersonic finishing accelerator appeared to successfully overcome the enemy’s defense systems. But the beginning of the collapse of the USSR suspended the introduction of such a product. The Caliber family of missiles was developed on the basis of 2 projects: the strategic nuclear cruise missile 1975М1984 with a radius of 3 thousand kilometers and the Alphator anti-ship missile competition (OCB Biryuz) created during the period from 10 to 2,5 ".

3M-14E cruise missile caliber

In addition, the development of an antisubmarine complex built on the basis of the KS-122 to replace the outdated and bulky Rastrub-B and Vodopad complexes was carried out simultaneously. The latest version of the rocket of this direction was demonstrated in the 1997 year.

Rockets of the Caliber family were presented to the general public at MAKS-93.

At the beginning of 2018, information appeared in the media about the beginning of work on the creation of a modified version of the Caliber-M rocket. Journalists said that for the Navy a new high-precision ship-based cruise missile, with a maximum firing range longer than 4500 km, was developed. The development of the rocket took place at the stage of scientific research, and the Ministry of Defense acted as a sponsor. It also became known that the new rocket will be fundamentally different from those that are already in service with the Caliber. The main differences will be in the dimensions and firing range. The rocket will be much larger, and the mass of its warhead will be close to one ton. According to the interlocutor of the agency, large surface ships are going to be equipped with a new rocket: from frigates and nuclear submarines. "Caliber-M" is used for the destruction of land facilities and can carry both conventional and nuclear warhead.

Photo 3

In service with the Russian Navy, as of 2019 year, is the RK "Caliber". According to information from open sources, the indicator of the maximum firing range of the 3М14 cruise missile from such a complex, flying at subsonic speed, reaches approximately 2000 km. For surface ships, a modification of the Caliber-NK complex was created, while for submarines, a Caliber-PL was created. In particular, “Caliber” is armed with the 21631 “Buyan-M” corvettes, the domestic 22350 frigates, non-nuclear submarines of the 636.3 and 877 projects, the multi-purpose Yenen nuclear submarines and other ships.

5 February, the Ministry of Defense 2019, Sergey Shoigu, announced the need to create a ground-level modification of the Caliber complex over the next two years due to the suspension of US participation in the INF.

Nomenclature of missiles

We present the characteristics of the export version of the Caliber rocket system (Club) (E). Of course, the exact characteristics of the system are not freely available, besides the publication of missiles for the 885 submarine of the project.

Anti-ship missiles (data taken from open sources for export modification)

  • 3M-10 container / glass;
  • 3M-54KEK (3M-54TEK) and 3M-54KEK1 (3M-54TE1K) - missiles equipped with control equipment with an inert warhead used for training starts, placed in transport-starting channel (transport and launch container);
  • 3M-54KEUD (3M-54TEUD) 3M-54KE1UD (3M-54TE1UD) 3M-54KEUS (3M-54EUS) 3M-54E1US, 3M-54KERM (3M-54TERM) and 3M-54KE1RM (3M-54TE1RM) - educational -existing, bench-training and training-cutting maters from the TCF complex, located in the transport and launching cup (transport-launch container) for training and testing the skills of personnel in the maintenance and operation of missiles;
  • 3М-54КЭГВМ and 3М-54ТЭГВМ are dimensional and weight models used for training personnel loading and unloading.

export samples of missiles "Caliber"

Missiles against ground targets (technical characteristics of the export version taken from free access)

  • 3М-14К / 3М-14Т (3М-14КЭ / 3М-14ТE) - a rocket of classic standard configuration with a high-explosive warhead in a transport / launching cup / container;
  • 3М-14КЭК (3М-14ТЭК) - a control rocket with an inert warhead that is intended for training launches, located in a transport-launching cup (transport-launch container).
  • 3M - 14KEU (transport and launch container) for training and practicing the skills of personnel in the maintenance and operation of missiles;
  • 3М-14ТЭГВМ dimensional and weight models used for training personnel loading and unloading.

Anti-submarine missiles

  • Rocket torpedo 91Р1 (91РЭ1)

Rocket torpedo 91Р1 (91РЭ1)

  • 91РТ2 rocket torpedo (91РТЭ2)

TTH of the Caliber missile family

The performance characteristics of the Caliber series, which are adopted by the Russian Armed Forces, are additionally unknown. The firing range of the "Caliber" at ground targets (according to data from 2012 year) is 2600 km, at sea - 375 km.

According to other reports, the range of 3М14 in thermonuclear combat equipment is from 2000 to 2600 km.

In the spring of 2016, the Admiral Grigorovich frigate held the ceremony of raising the flag of St. Andrew, at which the commander of the Russian Navy’s Black Sea Fleet announced that this ship had a combat impact area of ​​7 million square meters. km shooting ground targets and 800 000 sq. km when shooting at sea targets. This suggests that a ship can hit surface targets in a radius of approximately 500 km, and ground targets in a radius of approximately 1500 km (with a non-nuclear warhead). But it is not known whether the admiral meant the 3М54 “Caliber” missile, speaking of the destruction of naval targets.

Cruise missile 3М14E Caliber

In the autumn of 2017 of the year, speaking at the Valdai Club as part of the discussion, the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armed Forces, President V.V. Putin talked about the sea-based caliber's maximum flight range - 1400 km.

In early February, 2019 of the year, high-ranking sources in government agencies reported that the range of the Caliber-NK missile in the case of transfer to land was up to 2,6 thousand kilometers.

Tactical and technical characteristics of missiles in the export version

Rocket

3M-54E

3М-54Е1

3M-14E

91РЭ1

91РТЭ2

Length m

8,22

6,20

6,20

7,65

6,20

Diameter, mm

533

533

533

533

533

Launch weight, kg

2300

1800

1770

2100

1200

Warhead

Penetrating high-explosive
200 kg

Penetrating high-explosive
400 kg

High explosive or penetrating high explosive
450 kg

Torpedo APR-3МЭ

Torpedo MPT-XNUMHUME

Range of flight

220 km

300 km

300 km

50 km

40 km

Airspeed, Mach (M)

On the march: 0,8
The goal: 2,9

0,8

0,8

2,5

2,0

Trajectory (flight altitude)

On the march: 20 m
The goal: 10 m

20 m

Above the sea: 20 m
Above Land: 50-150 m

Ballistic

Ballistic

Management system

INS + RLGSN

INS + RLGSN

INS + RLGSN
+ data correction
GLONASS or GPS

Ins

Ins

ARGS-54E radar head

ARGS-54E is used to identify and accurately guide the Kyrgyz Republic at an enemy's naval target in the final segment of the trajectory of the 3М-54E missiles.

TTX ARGS-54E

  • It can be used both in group and in single use of rockets.
  • It provides missile guidance in the sector of angles of elevation — from + 10 ° to −20 ° and in azimuth ± 45 °.
  • The maximum range is up to 65 kilometers.
  • It can be used at any time of day at a temperature of −50 ° C to + 50 ° C, in conditions of fog and rain, and in rough seas up to six points.

Overall dimensions:

  • length - 700 mm;
  • maximum diameter - 420 mm;
  • weight without fairing - no more 40 kg.

ARGS-14E radar head

It is used for accurate targeting of the KR to enemy ground targets in the final segment of the flight path of the Club-N and Club-S missiles in counter conditions.

Photo 8

Major TTX

  • It can be used both in group and in single use of rockets.
  • It provides guidance of rockets in the sector of angles of elevation — from + 10 ° to −20 ° and in azimuth ± 45 ° along different trajectories.
  • The maximum range is up to 20 km.
  • It can be used at any time of day at a temperature of −50 ° C to + 60 ° C, in difficult meteorological conditions at any geographic latitude.

Overall dimensions:

  • length - 660 mm;
  • maximum diameter - 514 mm;
  • weight without fairing - no more 40 kg.

Where are cruise missiles used

Marine systems

  • Rocket complex Caliber-NK (Club-N), which is installed on surface ships. Integrated into a vertical PU 3C14;
  • Caliber-A missile systems (Club-A), which are mounted on airplanes.
  • Caliber-PL missile system (Club-S), which is installed on submarines. Integrated into 533-mm torpedo tubes;
  • modular missile system Club-U, which is installed on surface ships.

launch of the Caliber cruise missile from a ship

Aviation systems

Land systems

Assuming the use of missiles with a range of more than 500 km, the land variants of the complex are the most debatable, since they potentially violate the INF Treaty. American intelligence believes that such complexes with the Kyrgyz Republic Caliber were developed in Russia not only as a prototype, but also adopted and launch systems and launch control systems were created on the basis of Iskander OTRK. According to the CIA, there are now two divisions of such complexes, consisting of eight self-propelled launchers with a large stock of these missiles, on combat duty. There is another version: the rocket used by these complexes is the ground version of the X-101 rocket, not Caliber.

  • Club-K containerized missile system, which was integrated into 20- and 40 pounder ISO containers;
  • OTRK Iskander-K (presumably).

Media

The following ships of foreign and Russian fleets are equipped with rockets of the Caliber-NK and Caliber-PL series

  • Frigates project 22350;
  • Frigates project 11356;
  • Talvar frigates;
  • Frigates of the Shivalik type;
  • Corvettes project 20385;
  • Rocket ships of the project 11661 (depending on version);
  • 21631 small rocket ships;
  • 22800 small rocket ships;
  • Patrol ships of the project 22160 (depending on version);
  • Submarines of the 955 "Borey" project (as minor weaponry);
  • Submarines project 885 "Ash";
  • Submarines of the 636 Varshavyanka project;
  • Submarines project 677.

loading Caliber cruise missiles onto a submarine

According to Viktor Chirkov, the former commander-in-chief of the Navy, in the near future most of the Russian-built Navy ships of the Soviet construction, including the 1144 cruiser, the 956 destroyers and the 1155 anti-submarine ships, after upgrading, were equipped with Onyx and Caliber missile systems.

In recent years, software and downloads have been created, commissioned or delivered for use for the 3К14, 3М55, 9К, 3К96 rocket complexes and for the small package torpedo complex located on modern Russian Navy ships. The family of vertical PU surface 3S14 type ships provides accommodation to SC 1161K projects, 21631, 11356M 3K14 complex products, and NK projects 22350, 20385, 11442M, besides more complex products and 3M55 and 9K bureau. KBSM is the creator and supplier of serially manufactured transport and launch glasses made of composite materials having a breakable lid for the 9K and 3K14 products. For loading products of these kits in PU NK developed complexes of means of loading type CM-456.

It is unlikely that the Onyx SCRC in some UKKS is somehow related to the size of ammunition, since 3М14 and 3М55 have approximately the same length (according to some information about 8,1 and 8,6 meters). Most likely the 3C14 combat kit is artificially trimmed by the control system. It looks especially ridiculous with 20385 (with Onyx) and 11356 (without Onyx).

Anti-ship missile "Yakhont" (Onyx)

Operators

  • Russia.
  • China.
  • India.

Combat application

The Caliber series cruise missiles were often used during the Russian military operation in Syria. In addition, this is their first combat use.

date

Rocket

Quantity

Carrier

Goal

07.10.2015

3M14T

26

RK "Dagestan"
IRA "Grad Sviyazhsk"
IRA "Uglich"
IRA "Great Ustyug"

11 targets in Syria over a distance of 1500 km

20.11.2015

3M14T

18

ships of the Caspian Flotilla

For 7 targets of terrorist positions in the Syrian provinces of Raqqa, Idlib and Aleppo.

08.12.2015

3M14K

4

Diesel-electric submarines "Rostov-on-Don"

A blow to two major points of the terrorists of the "Islamic State" in the territory of Raqqa in Syria

19.08.2016

3M14T

3

IRA "Green Dol"
IRA "Serpukhov"

On the goals of the terrorist group "Dzhebhat an Nusra" in Syria.

15.11.2016

3M14T

3

frigate "Admiral Grigorovich"

On terrorists in the Syrian provinces of Idlib and Homs.

31.05.2017

3M14T / K

4

TFR "Admiral Essen"
Substation Krasnodar

According to the positions of militants, located east of Palmyra.

23.06.2017

3M14T / K

6

frigate "Admiral Essen"
frigate "Admiral Grigorovich"
Substation Krasnodar

A blow to the objects of the "Islamic State" (IG) in Syria.

05.09.2017

3M14T

6

frigate "Admiral Essen"

On IG facilities in Syria in the Deir ez-Zor area.

14.09.2017

3M14K

7

Diesel submarines "Veliky Novgorod"
Diesel submarines "Kolpino"

According to the objects of the IG in Syria.
The strike range was from 500 to 670 km.

22.09.2017

3M14K

3

Diesel submarines "Veliky Novgorod"

On the objects of the terrorist group "Dzhebhat en Nusra" in the province of Idlib.
The target range was about 300 km.

05.10.2017

3M14K

10

Diesel submarines "Veliky Novgorod"
Diesel submarines "Kolpino"

According to the terrorists of the ISIL group banned in Russia in Syria, the Caliber cruise missiles.

31.10.2017

3M14K

3

Diesel submarines "Veliky Novgorod"

On the objects of militants LIH in the province of Deir ez-Zor in the area of ​​Al-Bukemal.

03.11.2017

3M14K

6

Diesel submarines "Kolpino"

On the objects of militants LIH in the province of Deir ez-Zor in the area of ​​Al-Bukemal.

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