The blades of a helicopter rotor
The blades of a helicopter rotor

The blades of a helicopter rotor



The operating conditions of the rotor blade of a helicopter differ in many respects from the operating conditions of an aircraft wing. The main feature is that the loads acting on it are variable over time. Therefore, when choosing the material of the blade elements, the following requirements are put forward as the main ones:

  • - fatigue strength: crack resistance (resistance to fatigue crack propagation) and poor sensitivity to stress concentrators;

  • - invariability of the mechanical properties of the material of the elements and their compounds from a given operating time, temperature and atmospheric conditions of the environment;

  • - technological requirements: production capabilities to ensure the specified section shapes of structural elements; increasing the resource of structural elements by strengthening methods; control over the quality of connections and specified geometric


sizes in the manufacture of construction elements in the blade assembly; maintainability blade structure during its operation.
Besides the above, it is necessary to take into account the cost of material and manufacturing process blade process and cost of its operation.

In view of the above requirements are choosing the material, and which has the highest strength to weight ratio - and a specific modulus of elasticity E - p.

When forming the spar of the blade hybrid composites strive for maximum compatibility with the matrix material, for example, the magnitude of the dynamic elongation, degree of adhesion, and the coefficient of linear volume expansion, water capacity, aging time, the sensitivity to shock.

The sensitivity to impact is determined by the value of toughness. For fiber composites toughness is characterized by an attitude. One way to improve the toughness of the composites is the introduction into their structure more stable and less rigid fibers, such as glass or organic - in carbon fiber.

In the development of helicopter main power element of the blade - spar - carried out of wood, alloy steels, aluminum alloys, stainless steel, titanium alloys. It is now widely practiced manufacturing the spar from composite materials.


The blades of a helicopter rotor

frame units - lining, ribs, tail stringer previously manufactured from plywood, fabric, aluminum alloys, in modern blades are made as of the CM.
Wood has been used in practice Ukhtomsky Helicopter Plant. Y.I. Kamov in the period of its formation. Decisive in the selection of the material the following considerations were: wood is insensitive to stress concentrators, crack resistant; it does not require complex technological equipment in the production of the spar and the blade frame; the cost of manufacturing the blade is not large.

The central part of the spar was made of wood delta (glued thin sheets of wood), the nose of the profile consists of a set of glued pine slats. The tail section was a frame made of plywood paneling, glued to the foam. the blade surface is covered with a cloth and water-resistant varnish.
During the operation revealed significant deficiencies wooden blades:

  • - despite the moisture-resistant coating of the blade surface, the structural elements were saturated with moisture, which led to a change in the center of gravity of the section (shifted back) and a decrease in the critical speed of the blade flutter;

  • - impregnation with antiseptics did not eliminate the putrefactive destruction of wood during operation, while its mechanical properties worsened.


In the practice of the Moscow Helicopter Plant. ML Mile HB blades used mixed construction - spar was made from a steel pipe and frame elements used wood and canvas.

The requirements of strength, stiffness and aerodynamics, taking into account technological capabilities, led to the need to change the cross-sectional shape of the spar from radius to cylindrical to elliptical. The metallurgical industry did not have the equipment to form this longitudinal member from one billet. Therefore, designers were forced to introduce telescopic joints connected by steel rivets, using reinforcing technology (dorning holes), smooth stiffness transitions at the junction point, longitudinal grinding of the inner and outer surfaces of each side member.

Given the nature of the aerodynamic loads on the chord of the profile, the profile of the front part of the blade was made of plywood and the back - from the web to the inboard part of the blade and plywood sheathing in the middle and end parts.

Aerodynamic load and the centrifugal force acting on the frame, through the ribs were transmitted to the spar. The transfer of forces and moments on the spar carried by flanges riveted to the wall of the spar and ribs.

During the operation revealed a number of shortcomings adopted a constructive force scheme blades. The presence of joints and rivets greatly complicated the process of achieving the necessary resource blades. Use in the rear casing without torque (leaf) leads to the fact that due to external aerodynamic forces and centrifugal force WHOspirit, inside the frame, significantly distorted the blade profile, which degrades its aerodynamic characteristics.


The introduction of a drainage hole on the lower surface at the end of the blade led to local losses in the flow of air inside the carcass under the action of centrifugal forces. Elimination of this defect due to the failure of the web and the transition of the plywood liner over the entire surface of the blade significantly increased the mass of the blade and shifted the center of mass of the blade backwards. As a result of the joint activity of designers, technologists and metallurgists, the spar of the given variable cross-section without joints was created to eliminate the noted shortcomings, and the tail part of the blade was made of duralumin sheath reinforced with a honeycomb block that does not change its shape under the influence of aerodynamic loads.

For tubular spar usually used tube of high-alloy steel or type ZOHGSA 40HNMA, hardened and tempered for strength (a ^ = 1100-1300 MPa). After the hot and cold rolling, forming and hardening the outer and inner pipe surface polished. The outer and inner surfaces of the spar is created hardening of vibro-impact way to boost endurance limit and w = 280-300 MPa mi »at constant part load atm = 200-250 MPa.

In the blade construction based on steel pipe is usually protected by the frame spar and can not be mechanically damaged in operation.

The use of a pressed profile made of duralumin material made it possible to form the profile of the spar with the most expedient section (2.3.1). The use of a closed profile, obtained by pressing (extrusion), limited the range of use of existing duralumin alloys. During the pressing process, the material is divided into two parts, therefore, in the profile forming tool (spinneret), these two parts must be connected and press welded. To ensure that the structure of the material does not deteriorate at the welding places, it is necessary to use a material with high corrosion resistance. The fatigue strength of the duralumin spar may be reduced due to defects occurring during the profile pressing and machining of the spruce. Therefore, it is necessary not only the outer but also the inner surfaces of the spar to be strengthened by a vibro-impact method. The endurance limit can be adjusted to a = 55-60 MPa at o m = 60 MPa. To exclude the minimum possibility of corrosion damage to pressed longitudinal members during the production and operating conditions, it is necessary to use galvanic coatings (for example, anodizing) after intermediate processing operations.

pressing process does not allow to change the shape of the cross section for a given law, so the desired height profile along the length of the blade can be achieved only through the outer surface of the milling. As a result, the designer is able to design structurally-power blades scheme only rectangular in plan (the restriction r | = 1).

Spar contact surface with the air flow led to the need to protect the surface of the erosion damage.


helicopter blades

forming blade spar attempt was made of a thin laminated sheet of stainless steel, connected by means of a monolith gluing. It was supposed the creation of the design, which has high resistance to fatigue crack propagation. Organic drawback of this design was the inability to provide quality bonding and elimination of identified defects adhesive surfaces.

The blades of a closed-form spar allow the use of technical means of continuous monitoring of the spar fatigue failure of the material. damage-metal spars alarm system consists of an air-pressure alarm and the plugs at the ends of the spar (2.3.2). The internal cavity of the spar is filled with pressurized air, above the pressure start alarm status.


The blades of a helicopter rotor

rotor blades of the helicopter 2

In the event of a crack in the spar air pressure therein decreases. Information about the spar cavity depressurization supplied from a pressure annunciator extension bellows cap red specified in the butt portion of each blade.

Air pressure display in the longitudinal members in the cockpit is not output, because crack growth process before the destruction of the spar is several times longer than the maximum possible length of the helicopter flight. Control of the blade is carried out between the flight inspection on the Status of alarm.

The air pressure in the spar is created based on the ambient temperature and pressure, taking into account the beginning of the alarm status.

In the blades of the Mi-26 helicopter, the steel tubular spars on the outer surface are lined with fiberglass, so that when a crack in the longitudinal member occurs, it is impossible to detect the damage of the spar by means of a pneumatic signaling system. To ensure reliable operation of the signaling system of the longitudinal side member damage, double fluoroplastic cords (2.3.3) are laid along the entire length of its outer surface and polymerization in a mold is performed after winding with fiberglass tapes. Ftoroplastovye cords stretch, forming air channels with a diameter

2 mm open on the side of the outer surface of the side member tube. The appearance of a fatigue crack in the area of ​​the air channels leads to a pressure drop in the spar cavity and triggers the alarm. The channels are made double for technological reasons - there is always the possibility of breaking the fluoroplastic cord when it is pulled out of a cavity 14 m long.


helicopter blades


The anisotropy of composite materials has opened wide possibilities of their application in the blades HB. The application allows the CM directed to form stiffness characteristics of the blades (bending and torsion) by appropriate orientation of the reinforcing fibers of the composite, given the complex nature of its load.

Helicopter is the most advanced aviation equipment industry, it began to feel free to use the CM in such an important and difficult loads the unit as HB blade.


The effectiveness of CM in the power element of the blade is defined by a number of advantages of these materials compared to metals. In particular, the aerodynamic and aeroelastic parameters of composite blades can be chosen without regard to the limitations caused by technological processes produce rolled, extruded (pressed) or machined metal components.

Composite structures can be given a sophisticated aerodynamic shape and adjustable anisotropic material allows you to create the required rigidity within the specified aerodynamic and aeroelastic parameters. The result is greater aerodynamic efficiency screws determined ratio lift to the aerodynamic resistance.

Using CM having a high specific strength, the blade is made smaller mass than metal. Reduced weight blades, in turn, influences pas centrifugal force, the inertia of the rotor, the frequency and other characteristics.

The widely varying anisotropy of the CM makes it possible to obtain the necessary structural and damping parameters of the blade. 

aircraft in the context of the screw

The natural frequency of oscillation of the blade can be changed not only the redistribution of weight, but also a choice of reinforcing fibers having a low or a high modulus of elasticity, including hybridization (mixing), the degree of reinforcement and orientation of the reinforcing fibers with respect to the blade axis. The torsional stiffness of the blades can be substantially increased through the addition of layers oriented ± 45 ° relative to the blade span with little change in the frequency of the longitudinal oscillations.

One of the possible optimality criteria panels KM, providing at least its weight, is the condition of coincidence with the trajectory path of reinforcing the maximum principal stress. Typically, the CM is a set of unidirectional or fabric layers with different thicknesses and angles of orientation of the fibers. The properties of this material are determined by the properties of the individual layers and structure.

Effective implementation of the advantages of composites in the construction of the blades requires solving complex problems associated with the selection of a mutually agreed initial components (fiber and matrix), the definition of a rational structure of the material and the type of external loads and other impacts, taking into account the specific properties of the material and technological limitations in the design of the blade elements.

The mechanical behavior of the CM determined high strength fiber reinforcement, stiffness matrix and bond strength at the "matrix - fiber".

The largest application was received by the CM on fiberglass epoxy matrix. This is primarily due to the low cost of fiberglass. Further development of KM blade design involves the use of hybrid compositions

- combinations of carbon fiber with organic fiber and other similar options.

CFRP, possessing high strength, insensitive to shock loads. The introduction of less rigid material and the protection of the spar surface from any damage provides features extensive use of such compositions.

Spar with a closed box-section £) -shaped can be made by winding unidirectional tape on the mandrel. This method of manufacturing the blade spar is widely used in large-scale series production, where it is advisable to automate the manufacturing process. In practice OKB NI Kamov chosen technology for manufacturing the spar parts by calculations of different fabrics or unidirectional tapes of the material on the mandrels.

Sheets spar material collected in bags and subjected to preliminary crimping of the autoclave at a low temperature. Sheets with the stick, packages become necessary to further build the shape and stiffness and virtually no polymerization of the binder takes place. After crimping the packages are open path profile.

Then the bags are collected together with the centering loads, heating element and butt plates in one unit, which is located inside the process chamber rubber press. package unit with a press camera placed in a special mold, the inner contour of which corresponds to the outer contour of the bow of the blade.

Compressed nitrogen is supplied to the press chamber and the mold is heated. In this case, the spar acquires the necessary shape, the binder polymerizes and all the elements of the spar are firmly bonded together. At the end of the pressing process, the spar is removed from the mold, the press chamber is removed from it and the allowances are cut off. This method of production makes it possible to obtain a spar of a closed loop from various reinforcing fillers on different binders, in any combination with unlimited possibilities for their placement in the structure. A number of requirements are imposed on the assembly device for the production of a spar of a given cross-section when assigning pressure, heating, cooling and curing modes during curing. These requirements are aimed at excluding residual deformations and buckling due to temperature stresses and uneven distribution of material mass and thickness during the formation of the spar.

Type the source CM for spars selected depending on the flight performance of the helicopter data. For light duty blades of helicopters used cheap fiberglass satin weave. For heavily used hybrid blades KM based on high-strength fiberglass, carbon and technical fabric tape on the epoxy binder.

The blades of a helicopter rotor

The use of hybrid QM allows the main power element - spar - produce with virtually any desired distribution of mass and stiffness along the length of the blade.

Due to the requirements for the blades, and taking into account the current load, trailing blade section must meet the following requirements: structural strength, minimum weight, rigidity, sufficient resources (at least share of the spar blades), the smoothness of the airfoil, the ability to manufacture in mass production, ability to repair in the field and others.

The operation worked well the tail section of the blade three-layer honeycomb. This section has a lining, the end of the stringers and ribs of the fabric based on organic fibers and fillers of the cells. The use of the lung structure in QM tail sections enables to reduce the weight of the section as compared to fiberglass, and increase the resource.

Extensive experience gained in the operation of helicopters "Ka", showed that the blade of the CM have the best performance. The most important ones are as follows:

- a large margin of safety with a resource virtually unlimited in terms of endurance. The practical service life of CM blades is determined by the degree of their natural wear, depending on the operating conditions;

- increasing the service life of not only the rotor blades, but also the entire helicopter by reducing static and dynamic loads in the carrier system, favorable frequency characteristics and reducing the level of helicopter vibrations. This is ensured by a technological process that makes it possible to manufacture a spar with variable cross-sectional shape and wall thickness, as well as to use together different types of reinforcing material with different orientations. These most important qualities give significant advantages not only over metal blades, but also over other designs of blades made of CM;

- a high degree of maintainability. Thanks to the valuable properties of CM - high resistance to stress concentrators and a low rate of material destruction - it is easy and affordable to repair even large blade damages in the field;

- high resistance of the blades to almost all types of aggressive substances, fuels, pesticides, oils, etc.;

- stability of the flight performance of the blade during long-term operation in any climatic conditions. Long-term operating experience of helicopters with CM blades has shown that changes in the mechanical properties of the material are so insignificant that they do not affect either the flight performance or the service life of the blades.

On the CM characteristics in operation influences humidity.



Components for equipment

I would like to propose the Cabinet and the metal parts to perform the type of brand or concept to another, one after another came :) not wait until they raskleyutsya, rassypyatsya, heat up and deform FSE :) :)


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