The mass of the helicopter and what it should be
The mass of the helicopter and what it should be

The mass of the helicopter and what it should be

The complete reliability and safety of the structure during its entire service life can be ensured only by the correct monitoring system during its operation. The designer should understand that no calculations and tests on samples and stands do not guarantee against operational complications. Their cause may be limited knowledge. Therefore, the task of creating a reliable and safe design includes the development of such a control system for the period of operation, which would promptly signal the appearance of any dangerous defect. All units without exception should be considered as a system, which includes both the design and everything that relates to the control of it during operation and maintenance.

Based on the analysis of calculations, tests of samples, natural bays and experienced product designer should identify critical places to choose such control methods that guarantee detection of defects on a safe stage of its development, determine a frequency of inspection of critical spots to in between the defect is not time to reach the critical value.

Particular attention should be paid to the selection of an effective method of control: all you need to provide approaches for visual inspection. Where it is impossible to provide approaches that have to be worked out methods of inspection of optical devices; where such inspection is not possible and it is necessary to develop methods of nondestructive testing tool. The design must be operational and flaw detection manufacturability. Without this it is impossible to create a safe design with more resources.

A prerequisite to ensure flight safety consideration is feasible dangerous cases for each structural element and each of the functional system of the helicopter.

Static strength and endurance of the helicopter structure shall be such as to prevent the destruction of dangerous helicopter design elements under the action of loads in the anticipated operating conditions within the specified resources and service life.

Particular attention should be paid to the design process to ensure trouble-free operation of each functional system malfunction in which all possible combinations of external conditions affecting the system can

lead to catastrophic air accidents. The possibility of failures of elements that lead to the failure of a functional system or its dangerous consequences, should be kept to a minimum by design measures.

According to the degree of responsibility for safety and details of all units of the helicopter can be divided into four groups.

  • 1 group - units, the destruction of which leads to an immediate and complete violation of the health and safety in difficult to detect, the beginning of the appearance of fatigue cracks. This group includes blades, the spar of which is sheathed by the frame and does not allow to inspect it after the flight, a number of closed parts for inspection of the sleeve and the control system of the PS and PB, shaft HB, etc.

  • 2 group - units, the destruction of which could lead to an immediate and complete disruption of the structure and flight safety, but there is the possibility of early detection of the appearance of a fatigue crack. This includes blades with a reliably operating crack alarm system and all other units assigned to Group I, if the appearance of a fatigue crack in them can be detected in the pre-flight inspection.

  • 3 group - units, the destruction of which leads to a partial loss of efficiency of the structure and threatens the safety of the flight, but allows you to make an emergency landing without breaking the helicopter. Many elements of the fuselage belong to this group, even the gearbox frame, if it is made on a statically indefinable circuit.

  • 4 group - units, the destruction of which causes a partial loss of the helicopter's working capacity while preserving the possibility of continuing the flight, does not entail rapid destruction of other units and makes it possible to detect destruction during a ground inspection. This group includes many elements of the fuselage, a stabilizer, and a number of similar structural elements.

The weight of the helicopter, and it should be 2

Details and components should be designed not only for the safety criteria of durability and resistance to the process of destruction, ie, so that the cracked parts can be detected and replaced before structural failure. A vital part of the structure must be available for inspection, and in case of unavailability of the inspection - is designed with a large margin or duplicated. In the presence of cracks remaining structural strength must be located within predetermined limits the terms of reliability.

Addressing security helicopter transport is included in the scope of works and measures aimed at:

  • a) improving the organization, technical equipment and staff development of all services of the air transport system; the creation of a potentially safe helicopter corresponding to the level and conditions of operating organizations;

  • b) increase in the survival rate of passengers and crew when a helicopter hits an emergency or catastrophic situation.

Development of the construction should be part of an integrated program design, calculation and experimental research work, devoted mostly on reliability and service life.

The mass of the helicopter and what it should be

The calculated and experimental research while creating construction unit are carried out in three stages.

1. At the first stage, in addition to the usual test of strength for loads determined by the standards of strength, at least the following design work is performed:

- optimization of mass and economic indicators;

- calculation of endurance of power longitudinal set and main loaded nodes;

- determination of the compliance of the scheme and type of construction with the requirements of safe destruction.

All these calculations are made at a very early design stage to lay in the design of those basic principles that later can not be adjusted. The volume of theoretical studies and defines the methods of their execution. Without the use of computer calculations required volume impractical.

2. The design development should be preceded or, as a last resort, accompanied by tests of structural samples and models of the second phase of the study. At the second stage, the following are determined: permissible compression stresses in the force longitudinal set; endurance of the regular zone of the lower and upper power longitudinal sets; endurance of critical places of construction, mainly of transverse joints (to select the type of joint and assess its compliance with the required resource); the rate of propagation of cracks on the samples to verify the choice of material and type of construction.

3. The final, third stage of the integrated program should be tests of full-sized compartments, stands and complete aggregates for static strength according to the life test program (including tests for the rate of crack propagation, partial failure safety, acoustic strength, etc.) and functional tests of mechanization aggregates. with checking their performance.

The weight of the helicopter, and it should be 323

An array defining the structural and technological factors, formed by not important components - walls, shelves for placement and mounting equipment, interior decoration booths, etc., as well as due to additional weight of process connections, constant thickness of the sheet material and standard profiles used for plating and stringer set of frame units.

Reducing excess weight technology possible in the following areas.

1. The use of semi-finished products of variable sections (wedge-shaped plating and profiles).

2. The use of monolithic extruded, cast or machined structures (panels, edging, hatches, flashlight and window frames). These structures due to the lack of connecting holes have increased fatigue strength. Stamped parts are particularly advantageous, in which the fibrous structure of the metal is retained.

3. Increasing the dimensions of semi-finished products (plating, profiles) to reduce the number of connections.

4. Expansion of the range of semi-finished products (increase in the number of standard sizes). Application at low loads of thin-walled rolled profiles or profiles of sheet material.

5. Narrowing the field of tolerances on semi-finished products, casting and stamped parts, reducing the positive tolerances.

6. Reducing the number of technological connectors.

7. Application for welding compounds (in particular, diffusion), gluing, soldering, which do not weaken the main structure and allow the use of materials of small thickness.

8. Reducing the mass of connecting elements of the connection through the use of:

a) bolts of titanium alloys;

b) lightweight bolts: hollow, with reduced thread length, with rounded heads, lightweight nuts;

c) aluminum alloy bolts for non-critical connections;

d) clamps and other fasteners from perforated tape.

9. The use of new materials and advanced methods for decorative painting, sealing and corrosion protection.

10. Careful performance of the mating parts, eliminating the occurrence of off-design loads and the use of compensators, gaskets, putty, sealants, excessively powerful fasteners, etc.

11. The widespread use of chemical milling to produce parts with varying cross sections and minimum.

12. Application hardening technology: shot blasting, running rollers, etc. dornovanija

13. Selective sampling of materials on physical and chemical characteristics - you can not achieve stable properties during their manufacture.

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