helicopter main rotor
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helicopter main rotor

helicopter main rotor

Helicopter rotor blades and consists of a sleeve.

The blades create lift needs.

Sleeve a kinematic mechanism for the movement and angular movements of the blade in the vertical and horizontal plane under the influence of aerodynamic and inertial forces, as well as the rotation of the blade to control its buoyancy.

HB creation process is performed in sequence:

  • 1. The choice of the main parameters HB: diameter D number of blades g; fill a; rotational speed with D.

  • 2. Aerodynamic layout of the blade (the appearance of the blade): the choice of forms in the plan; the shape of the profiles of sections, the relative thickness of the sections with and the distribution of twist φ along the radius of the blade

  • 3. Determination of the limiting angles of deviation of the blade φ, (3, £, when controlling the helicopter in all design modes of its flight.

  • 4. Blade design:

- the choice of the material of the spar and frame, the shape of the spar, taking into account previous experience and existing design, technological and operational constraints; the formation of the cross section of the spar along the chord and the radius of the blade based on a static calculation of pas strength;

Helicopter rotor 2

Helicopter rotor pictures

- adjustment of mass-stiffness characteristics of the blade with the purpose of detuning from resonance at operating frequencies of rotation of the air source and ensuring sufficient stocks of aeroelastic stability (calculated types of flutter, divergence, “earthly” resonance).

  • 5. Designing bushings HB:

- the choice of the kinematic scheme of the sleeve, taking into account a given histogram of the deviation angles of the blades and the requirements of operation (folding the blades in the parking lot, etc.);

- the choice of material elements of the sleeve;

- the choice of the type of hinges (bearings, bearings, elastic elements);

- select the type of vertical hinge damper;

- constructive-technological development of sleeve elements (determination of geometrical dimensions and shape, surface hardening technology, etc.).

helicopter main rotor

  • 6. The manufacture of experimental full-scale samples of elements HB.

  • 7. Tests for durability and life tests of the elements of HB on the field stand, the adjustment of technical documentation for the manufacture of elements of IV.

  • 8. Flight studies of the kinematic characteristics of the bushings and blades HB.

  • 9. Serial production of blades and bushings HB.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ELEMENTS helicopter rotor

HB helicopter of its attachments, including: blade bushing joints and bearings, damper lever pivot blade attachment sleeve helicopter rotor shaft of the main gearbox (GR), the shaft GR Carter GR (if it is included in the power circuit design) GR mount to the fuselage (the gear rack), wild boar or column NV and its attachment to the fuselage - must meet the following requirements.

The design of the blades should provide the specified characteristics of the aerodynamic contour and balance within that allow to operate the helicopter, taking into account speed limits, resources and service life.

Helicopter rotor 2

Helicopter rotor blade must be designed so as to prevent normal operation, preventing accumulation of water in any portion thereof.

The blades should be equipped with an alarm system damage spar. In the presence of signaling resource blades since its operation shall not be less than the maximum duration of the flight, set for this type of helicopter.

Durability trim blades HB should be checked for the joint action of bending loads on blades in the plane of the highest and lowest hardness, torsion, as well as the maximum local aerodynamic loads and internal pressure.

Torsional Rigidity blade about its longitudinal axis in combination with the stiffness of the control wiring must be sufficient for acceptable levels of loads from a flutter safety and loss of control.

Static strength of HB and its attachment must be checked to load the flight and ground load cases that are under consideration for the settlement of the structure. In addition, the static tightness HB checked for landing load cases of loading.

To reduce the risk to the strength calculation of load resonance phenomena must precede the determination of natural frequencies of the blade in the plane of rotation and stroke. It should take into account the boundary conditions for its consolidation in the operational speed range HB.

Helicopter rotor and everything about it

Static strength of the bearing sleeve HB must be sufficient to withstand the load falling on the bearings in the case of loading in maneuvering flight, and under the influence of turbulent air. Bearing life should be determined on the basis of tests for wear isolated articulations and (or) assemblies generally form at the stands or ground endurance test. To determine the bearing life is taken minimum result obtained by testing a minimum of three samples.

In drawing up the program of tests for wear permitted to take that length of horizontal flight at low speeds is 10% of the resource, flying at cruising speed

- 80% of the resource and flying at maximum speed - 10% of the resource.

Results of land or natural resource test bench can be used to assess the strength of the individual units of helicopters, if the level of current at this voltage is not less than the flight.

To determine the intensity, checking inventories to self-oscillation, vibration studies, determining the dynamic characteristics of the structure of the blade held bench tests under the given loads.

Furthermore bench are also other types of tests: to determine the strength characteristics of materials, the stress determination using different models of optical active material, endurance tests and trials in an actual operation. Tests are carried out in various ways: without turning the screws on special stands in the laboratory, with the rotation of the stands - special towers or screw devices on the basis of full-scale helicopter in wind tunnels.

Helicopter rotor 545

The HB blades must undergo fatigue testing in order to determine the durability of the structure under the influence of variable loads for the subsequent determination of the resource and for quality control of the serial production. Typically, a sample compartment and a lumpy section are tested. Tests are carried out on resonant stands. Loads are created using an inertial vibrator mounted on the blade compartment. In addition to the variable lateral loads, an application of static loading from the centrifugal force is provided. Often, the rate of growth of fatigue cracks is also recorded, which makes it possible to reasonably establish the periodicity of structural inspections in operation, and to increase the survivability of the structure.

A feature of fatigue testing is the need to repeat them many similar objects, due to random variations in the characteristics of a significant durability.

The tests on flutter screws are manufactured on models in wind tunnels, necessarily on full-scale helicopter to the ground conditions at the promotion of HB.

Measurements of loads on the blade in flight could be properly placed and held only on the basis of preliminary calculations and bench tests.

The value of full-scale flight tests is that all phenomena occur without distortion associated with the violation of similarity, with the schematization of the design, the methods of applying the load, etc. It is possible to create helicopters-flying laboratories for the study of new structures that have not previously been studied. The disadvantage is the increased risk of testing in some cases. During flight tests, the stresses in the side member of the HB blade, in its skin, the torsional moments and hinge moments of the blades, the forces in the control systems, the moments and forces in the shafts HB and RV, the stresses or bending moments in the blades of the RV, the details of the bushings are measured.

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