New horizontal tail V
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New horizontal tail V - aircraft manufacturing technology of the future.

New V horizontal plumage -

aircraft manufacturing technology of the future.

Modern aircraft Is of great importance for the development of our country, both in the civil aspect and in the military. Development and improvement of aviation consists in increasing reliability, improving and simplifying production technologies, improving the performance characteristics of aircraft. All these are important components in the development and design of aviation equipment. The qualitative and quantitative indicators that characterize the reliability and cost of the corresponding aircraft have different parameters. But the most important of all operational characteristics is the reliability and value of the payload at the weight of the aircraft.

This term implies a finansovo - the effective value of the aircraft.

In this article, we propose a new way to control the aircraft stabilizer located in the front and deflected in the vertical plane - from the "zero" position to the maximum position of positive or negative «V» stabilizer. Such a process helps to increase the stabilizer control maneuverability of the aircraft Reduce fuel consumption, but also improve the efficiency of the airport rate.

Efficiency the airport - this is an increase in the throughput of the human flow for a certain period of time, it is quite possible to ensure that the landing time of the aircraft is reduced.

The aircraft with the placement in front of the regulator received in the literature the name " duck ", But this form is statically unstable. The proposed scheme is in my article will increase static stability of the aircraft such a scheme, compared with the conventional scheme, "duck", and also it does not require expenditures for stability pitch axis.

tangage - (From French - tangage) the slope of the aircraft with respect to the main transverse axis (yet it is called a longitudinal bias). Pitch is measured from zero to a positive or negative angle position of the aircraft.

The proposed scheme of the article can be considered as promising for commercial aircraft, as well as for potential use in aircraft transport aircraft.

And all of these benefits are relevant in the context of the economic crisis.

Having learned that the modern Su-27S fighter-interceptor of the Russian military aviation was used for the first time in the world to use the system of the deflected vector of thrust, which inspired the author's thoughts about creating a system for changing the position of the stabilizer on the aircraft. And since it began its creation.

With the use of the system change in the cross «V» stabilizer rose in some aircraft aerodynamic elements, which in turn would lead to a violation of these properties of aircraft and possible destruction of aircraft components.

This development is appropriate and it is expected to implement both the air forces that will strengthen their defense capability, reliability and all-weather, and various military - transport and passenger samples of both existing and future aviation technology, aims to increase transport efficiency .

Also, you should study the side, which is to reduce (or possible increase) noise barrier at the intersection of supersonic aircraft. This factor is now completely understood, but in order to prove the probability of this statement, it is necessary to do a lot of calculations and spend a lot of experiments, it will take a lot of time and workload. In addition, to carry out such experiments are relevant specialists with great scientific - research base and experience in the design and aircraft.

In this paper we propose to consider the following issues:

  • a) the necessary design changes, additional related weight changes and ways to neutralize them.
  • b) balancing, stability and flight control with the new system.
  • c) the impact of this modification on the efficiency of the aircraft.
  • g) the positive effect of this change on the safety of the flight.

Main part

On my main achievements in the study of this technology.

The theme, as already discussed in receipt unique, and no one ever investigated in the world.

In order to enter into the swing of things, I talk about naming some of the aircraft. (Figure "duck" scheme)

duck feathers

1 - fuselage, 2 - horizontal tail, 3 - vertical tail, 4 - wing.

This is the main part of the aircraft, which will be dedicated to art.

The basis of this article is a report on the horizontal feathersThat is the invention as well as its application in different perspective planes.

Now carry out the same story of the horizontal stabilizer and tail.

Horizontal tail - Part of the tail of the aircraft, which is designed to provide longitudinal stability of the aircraft, and aircraft control.

The difference between the stabilizer and the horizontal tail surface is that the composition comprises horizontal tail stabilizer and elevator, and stabilizer - Part of the horizontal stabilizer to provide longitudinal stability.

At subsonic aircraft flying horizontal tail usually consists of a real estate or limited real stabilizer and mobile elevator.

Movable stabilizer and elevator can deviate relative to their axes. If you turn (rotate) to some angle of the elevator, on the horizontal tail, an additional aerodynamic force appears, and from this - an additional moment relative to the center of gravity of the aircraft. According to the subsonic speed range, the conventional elevator rudder effectively manages the aircraft's handling. In those cases when the alignment significantly changes during the flight, the efficiency of the incomplete stabilizer is insufficient, a full-turn controlled stabilizer is used.

alignment - This is the center of gravity of the aircraft. But if more precisely, it is the permissible limits that determine the possibility of movement of the center of gravity of the aircraft (for example, when loading on the ground, when generating fuel in the air, when moving cargo during air landing). These boundaries are drawn up by the enterprise – developer, and during the operation of the aircraft it is necessary to strictly observe them, since the slightest deviation from the centering requirements or going beyond this boundary inevitably avikatastrofe.

alignment

Fig. № 2. Driving forces acting on the aircraft.

G - gravity aircraft, Y - lift, P - Rod, Q - the drag force.

At subsonic aircraft departing flight speeds of the elevator leads to the appearance of additional forces on the horizontal tail assembly is not only due to most vehicles, but also as a result of the stabilizer pressure redistribution.

The author would like to point out that the flight of the aircraft at subsonic and supersonic speed is significantly different, which is primarily caused by the shock waves.

shock wave - this is a shock wave, typical for supersonic gas flow, a narrow region in which, if we consider it stationary, there is a sharp decrease in gas velocity and a corresponding increase in pressure, temperature, density and gas entropy. The thickness of the shock wave in the direction normal to its surface, that is, the length at which the gas parameters change, is small — on the order of the average mean free path of the molecules. In most cases, this value is neglected, but for us it is important.

During the flight of the aircraft at supersonic speeds - the effectiveness of the elevator tends to decrease. This downward trend is due to the fact that the pressure change caused by the steering deflection does not go beyond the limits of the shock wave, and thus does not reach the stabilizer. As a result, the elevator deflection has no effect on the volume and nature of the pressure distribution along the stabilizer. Because of this, the aircraft with supersonic flight speed, found the use of all-round horizontal tail. The transition to a full turn horizontal tail allowed to increase its (horizontal tail) efficiency at near sonic and supersonic flight speeds, especially at high altitudes.

Nowadays, sometimes all-moving horizontal tail is used for cross-control aircraft. His console deflected along the longitudinal control and differentiated - in the management of roll .

First of all, the author wants to talk about efficiency, as well as about the positive qualities of the project. For comparison, the author provides several forms of aircraft (the classical form and duck).

The classic form is both and minuses and pluses, which define the concept of its further development. The world's most widespread this form, as it is characterized by its simple shape and has great prospects for further development. Another reason is that the aerodynamic form is ideal for commercial aircraft such as for example An -124 и Boeing - 777F (an essential difference between them lies in the methods of loading and / or unloading of the goods). The plane AN - 124 has a ramp on which the loading and / or unloading cargo, and Boeing - 777 it goes through the doorway into the fuselage plane. ) But we should not forget about its shortcomings, such as less useful volume for fuel, and even the cost of the ballast. But this form is somewhat simpler than the form of "duck".

The classical form has a significant positive side:

  • - Before the wing of the aircraft has no parts that could darken it when changing the position of the aircraft or to disturb the incoming air flow that would violate the smooth flow of the wing, and would reduce its carrying capacity;
  • - Placement of the horizontal tail rear wing allows to shorten the nose of the fuselage, improves visibility and gives us the opportunity to reduce the area of ​​the horizontal tail (forward fuselage creates a destabilizing yaw moment).
  • Moreover, this form has some disadvantages:
  • - Horizontal tail operates in a beveled and hindered wing airflow due to this real (genuine) feathering angle of attack may become negative, and its streamlined flow rate will be less than on the wing;
  • - Almost in all flight modes, horizontal tail creates negative lift force as a result of the reduced lift aircraft, in particular a loss in lifting force is particularly great in the takeoff and landing of the aircraft.

The shape of the aircraft with the layout "duck" is used much less, and in general in military aircraft. Another disadvantage is that it requires special training for pilots, because it is statically unstable. This is for example how pendulum . If you take him out of the equilibrium position, then he will roll from side to side, and then he will still return to the equilibrium position. This corresponds to the usual scheme of the aircraft, and the scheme "duck" does not return to the equilibrium position. And with the help of this system of changing the transverse “V” stabilizer, aircraft controllability can be somewhat increased (to the “duck” scheme, and fuel consumption can be reduced; to classic planes, it is still possible to significantly increase the maneuvering and stability of the aircraft during critical loads, and when performing combat maneuvers).

The main advantages of "duck" scheme:

  • - The wing does not affect the characteristics of flow over the horizontal tail
  • - Horizontal tail in the air creates a positive lift
  • - For achieving large angles of attack stall on the horizontal tail plane automatically translates into smaller angles of attack, reduces the risk of transition to the supercritical wing angles of attack and disrupt the aircraft into a spin

Now, the author would like to emphasize the efficiency of the system.

The very positive effect is to reduce the negative impact of the stabilizer on the wing flow.

Stabilizer - It is one of the most important horizontal plane of the aircraft, which ensures the stability of the aircraft.

stabilizer fin design and consists of a set of longitudinal (spars, stringers and wall), a cross-kit (ribs), and plating.

Stabilizers and the tail fin are usually two-spar or caisson construction, while relatively simple provided their strength and rigidity.

Bending accepted or belts spars, stringers or with a shell, the lateral force - mostly walls spars; Twist - closed circuit, which consists of plating the walls of the longitudinal side members and walls.

Stabilizers may be releasable or non-releasable in scope.

When a small area and the relatively short length of the longitudinal beams of the horizontal tail stabilizer often made one-piece, because of this, their design is more simple and easy.

Connectors on the scope of the stabilizer, which are provided in advance of technology requirements and operation, located in the plane of symmetry plane of the fuselage at the side or at the keel.

The lower parts of the stabilizer are attached with the help of corners and fittings on the longitudinal members in the central part, firmly attaching it to the fuselage. In the place of the fracture of the directions, the reinforced side rib belongs to the spar. The stabilizer is connected to the fuselage by means of two front and two rear docking stations.

The two-spar structures stabilizer butt joint butt nodes is performed on the central part of the longitudinal members, or by reinforced frames.

Horizontal tail on modern aircraft are often located on the tail fin of the aircraft and produces together with him T - shaped structure.

In some aircraft provided adjustment setting angle of the stabilizer in flight, making it possible to balance the aircraft in different embodiments, and its load changes alignment.

In many cases, the system can operate efficiently at takeoff - landing phases and during combat maneuvers.

Fig. Number 3 methods of use of the system changes in the cross «V» stabilizer during the dive and landing mode.

What is the role of any change in the position of the cross «V» stabilizer?

When the stabilizer is at zero power, a normal flight at cruising speed. Without large changes in direction, and without rolls. With positive angles of attack, the stabilizer rises upwards, which allows to significantly reduce the negative impact on the wing (as in the zero-degree position). The wing eclipse is shown in figure 3 by a straight line, and the positive position angle is dotted. The position of the flow of the stabilizer is also dotted. In this figure, you see a more positive effect of the system. But do not forget that, in turn, this improves the static stability of the aircraft during combat maneuvers to decrease (in the "duck" scheme) and to increase the critical angle of attack (for an ordinary plane aircraft).

There are also inappropriate cases of using the system. Such as when diving and take-off. Basically, it is not needed because the air that flows around the stabilizer does not obscure the wing, as it happens during take-off. But in the future, this system can be used to facilitate and possibly reduce the pressure on the stabilizer during take-off under adverse conditions. And yet, the author would suggest using the layout of the aircraft "Utka" in civil aviation, since this form is more promising, but less predictable, under unfavorable conditions. And in fact at the moment, aviation knowledge needs to be significantly expanded and improved in comparison with existing ones.

Now, the story of the "inaction" of the system at takeoff.

Features of "Duck" system, you can very well see in military aviation.

"Duck" The system proved itself in the early stages is very capricious, but then, after some time it paid off. A striking example of this is the fact that US military aircraft in the early stages of operation - scout YF -12 , Also known under the pseudonym " Black bird "Experienced serious damage even in the first stages of testing, at-speed run. At that time he was not just taking off the runway.

Aircraft YF-12

Aircraft YF-12, SA made the aerodynamic configuration "duck".

The second part of the report, but rather on the mechanism of the system.

Because the shape of the aircraft "duck" in this report, it is preferred that a large part of the text.

By linking this form of the airplane does not statically stable and largely due to (the flight characteristics) located in the rear wing of the fuselage. This system will help to overcome this anti sustainability. But all this is very relative stability as a stabilizer at different speeds for different flows about air. But may cause flutter at speeds exceeding

1000 km / h.

The author considers it necessary to install an automatic system for changing the position angle of the transverse “V” stabilizer. Because when the pilot maneuvers, he will have no time to monitor the angle of the stabilizer. Another of the drawbacks of the system is a small set of angles of variation of the transverse “V” stabilizer. With different inclination of the aircraft (roll) you need to set a different angle of inclination. When tilting in pitch, you must also set a different angle. This part of the article introduces limitations in use, but let's go back to the positive effects that this article is about.

The proposed scheme is to show their best performance in a dogfight and landing aircraft. You can use the system in adverse conditions such as in heavy wind and more rain. Even in the mountain climate and high altitude airfields. It's all about the likelihood of using the system, and now some of the conditional caution when using.

As the author thinks, it is possible to use this system both in the afterburner mode and at high speed (possibly more 1000 km / h). There will be a strict ban (only on large passenger aircraft) on abrupt maneuvers with the release of a system for changing the stabilizer angle, which is not due to cautions in operation, but the geometry and dynamics of the aircraft, because when removing a large passenger plane from energetic maneuvers, it is necessary to take into account its inertia moment and the forces opposing the withdrawal of the aircraft in steady-state or flat horizontal flight.

A few words about the weight of the aircraft. Due to the fact that there will be some new set many different mechanisms and equipment that inevitably increase aircraft weight, and will increase the mass moment of inertia and the deterioration of the dynamic characteristics, but it is not a silver lining. All of the above points, you can easily compensate for the increase in the corresponding maneuvering characteristics. But this disadvantage can be eliminated quickly, make the most of the stabilizer angle of attack.

Fig. № 5 (Main, the first position of the main regulator. The nose of an airplane)

This is the basic position, and at a speed at a 1000 km / h it can be varied.

On the weight. As already mentioned, that the increase in aircraft weight would lead to negative consequences. To eliminate this defect is very easy to change the angle of attack of the stabilizer.

The figure number 6 presented as eliminated the lack of weight loss-making aircraft equipment. If not to go into the jungle of physics and aerodynamics, it can be very easy to explain this fact: with the change in the bearing surface angle of attack and change its lifting characteristics, we can calculate the change Lifting force, based on the polar plane.

The polar (wing aircraft, a glider) - a diagram depicting the relationship between the lift coefficient and the drag of the wing (airplane, glider) at different angles of attack. A polar is sometimes also called the Lilienthal curve. If the polar is plotted on the same scale, then the vector drawn from the origin to any point on the curve will be equal to the coefficient of the total aerodynamic force for a given angle of attack. The airplane (glider) polar, in addition to the drag of the wing, takes into account the drag of the remaining parts of the aircraft and the effect of interference. The form of the polar depends on the geometric parameters of the wing (airplane, glider) and on the similarity criteria (Reynolds number, M number). At high flight speeds, which affect the compressibility of the air, each number M corresponds to its own polar. The polar angle makes it possible to determine the characteristic angles of attack of the wing (airplane, airframe), namely: the angle of attack of the zero lift (at the point where the lift coefficient is zero), the critical angle of attack (at the point where the lift coefficient is maximum), the most advantageous angle of attack (At the point of contact of the polar with a straight line drawn from the origin), the angles of attack with the same aerodynamic quality (at the points of intersection of the polar with a straight line drawn from the origin at an angle whose tangent is equal to the aerodynamic quality of the roof La, plane or airframe).

Fig. № 6 (Increasing the weight of the aircraft and the elimination method).

Changing the angle of the stabilizer's position helps the aircraft to increase efficiency and avoid undesirable dive moment and still make a big profit, after the consequences of damage to the enemy's rocket. But the maintenance of the system will be quite complicated, because the system for changing the transverse "V" stabilizer, is very complicated and technically difficult to manufacture, it will require specialists of a significant level for diagnostic and service maintenance. In Russia and Ukraine today there are few such specialists, but after the launch of the aircraft in a series (possibly also on a trial basis), the author hopes for their support.

Most statically unstable system "Duck" on the pitch, but the system quickly eliminates this disadvantage and, therefore, it is safe to suggest to use this scheme for civil aviation, in order to reduce fuel consumption and relieve airspace airports. And in terms of maturing financial global crisis, it can be reduced and expensive for people and businesses - time. His treasure, and the need is now very confused of all.

Now about the social effect.

The social effect is the possible reduction of noise. For the exact solution you need to do complex account) decrease noise when breaking the sound barrier and overcoming a long distance on it. This is an important factor for all aircraft types, including the interceptors, and for civil aircraft, although this quality fighters do not have such an outstanding value, such as the effective scattering surface (to reduce radar visibility).

Mechanization stabilizer

Technically, it was enough to create a hard, difficult but with all - to do his mechanization, ie attachment to the aircraft. This is the main objective of the investigations. And to create a thorough attachment takes years of experience and wealth of knowledge of relevant experts in aerodynamics.

stabilizer scheme is not very complicated, but not easy. Its main parts are the spar, ribs and stringers. They are combined, as in conventional aircraft. But fixing takes place by elongation of the spar. Is controlled hydraulically.

hydraulic drive - A system of different elements of the value of equipment that help control the aircraft.

In this sense - horizontal tail.

These elements are also referred to as hydraulics. The horizontal tail with variable cross «V» stipulates booster control, hydraulically. The equipment:

flying servo control it - it's control with hydraulic drive (primary), which is controlled by a hydraulic booster (booster).

Hydro power (Booster) is a hydraulic control system and consists of executing mechanism (ram), the reference element and the relationships between them.

Depending on the nature of the moving output member distinguish boosters translational and rotational mode of action.

The process of changing the angle of installation is done by hydraulic actuators, which will be located on the elongate member. Spars themselves secured with special screws, and are fixed to the ribs of power, perhaps to increase the reliability and flexibility in flight. By this story attached drawings stabilizer attachment to the fuselage scheme.

When creating this system, many parameters are still unknown, but it has been proposed total kontseptsіya use change in the cross angle of installation of the horizontal oapereniya, so the article is staged and research rather than applied. The controls are quite complex and varied.

By the action of the circuit of the invention.

It is very simple and created on the basis of the lever. The maximum angle of attack of the stabilizer is from -25 to + 25 degrees. This is not only a technical limitation, it is the maximum angle at which the horizontal tail does not obscure the wing. Control will be done booster and with an automatic node associated with the aircraft control stick. All the work will be done by a technician (special computer), into which various stabilizer control programs will be loaded. But the most novelty in it will be a special elongation of the stabilizer. This article proposes to extend the stabilizer to achieve a new type of control - lever. About him the story below.

This is how the kinematic control scheme of the system for changing the transverse “V” horizontal tail will look.

Fig. № 7. Kinematic stabilizer circuit with variable cross "V" stabilizer. explanation: 1 - handle control of the aircraft, 2 - automatic horizontal tail control system, 3 - actuator autopilot, 4 - booster (power), 5 - accumulator, 6 - axis changes in the cross «V» stabilizer, 7 - various provisions of the elevator.

It is assumed booster regulator control circuit, since it does not require additional time for balancing.

The control circuit or changing the cross «V» stabilizer is carried out hydraulically.

PPV

Fig. № 8. Name of parts of the system.

explanation: 1 - place position of the wing, 2 - fuselage, 3 - stabilizer, 4 - elongated spar, 5 - bracket, which is attached a support point of the spar, 6 - point spar support, 7 - accumulator, A mounting rod hydraulic drive to the bracket, 9 - upper cowl, 10 - bar hydraulic drive attachment, 11 - pipeline, 12 - the lower fairing, 13 - power.

Before you create the system the author thought about a lot of options and wants to tell you about some of them. The closest to this was a scheme with four hydraulic cylinders on the example of its author tells about the positive and negative aspects of this project. Since the control system will be a booster and the automatic, the system does not need to install another device is controlled in the cockpit, which is very important in combat maneuvering and possible dogfight.

AB

Fig. Number 9 Scheme mounting rod to steering stabilizer spar.

1 - elongated spar, 2 - block mounting spar welded to the bracket, 3 - welded part of the spar, 4 - screw, 5 - locknut, 6 - washer.

Note: The spar, which is used in this design is in one piece with the bracket (it comes to the assembly in cooperation).

The construction of the second scheme is simpler and it is very important, because of this, it has less influence on the alignment, and more secure. The most likely factor fault in the air (due to damage or malfunction) could be a failure of one of the hydraulic actuators, which would lead to misalignment of the stabilizer and the (possible) plane crash. But the greatest positive effect is the synchronization of both stabilizers.

The greater weight of the first system could lead to a breach of the alignment. This would have led to a dive-effect, or pitching (depending on system deployment).

It involves the installation of the back of the elevator system, which will be guided by a propeller shaft.

The scheme of action is very simplified: if the pilot moves the handle of the aircraft from himself, the system delivers a special signal to the hydraulic drive and the stabilizer rises, and remains in this position until the pilot aligns the aircraft in 0 +/- 5 degrees in pitch. Then the system also aligns its position with respect to the pitch axis. When the pilot moves the handle of the aircraft to himself, the system does nothing. The system does nothing because the airflow does not obscure the wing in the second position. This is a simple example. All examples given above refer to the airplane "duck" scheme.

As it happens in the hydro - cylinder? In the first position of the reduced power is lowered to the bottom. In the second position with the hydraulic cylinder does nothing.

This design provides for a special unit of the stabilizer position changer, depending on the aircraft control stick.

We also consider the long-term use of this circuit system and fighters 5-th - 6-th generation and airplanes, which are currently still being developed.

The author allows himself to repeat that this development is unique and has no analogues in the world. Prospective use of this system in the form of airplanes "duck", because for them, and it was developed. But the majority of the world's aircraft is a representative of the classical aerodynamic configuration (shape), and you can use this system for them. As an example, considered Ukrainian aircraft

An -70, who is currently on static testing stage, and already may soon get a certificate of airworthiness.

The most common use of this system is expected to military and transport aircraft.

So spent in the article studies suggest that changes in cross-system «V» of the stabilizer should be considered as appropriate to use both in existing and in future models of aircraft, since it will provide increased reliability and profitability, and will also help to improve the management of aircraft.

Igor Makarov specifically for Avia.pro

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