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Operationalizing by subjective means in aviation. Example.

Operationalizing by subjective means in aviation. Example.

Ways to prevent incidents such as'landing gear on the run"

Current operationalization as a way to prevent errors is to ensure an adequate understanding of the procedure itself wrong in the process of its implementation. There are different methods of actual operationalization. Some of them are more or less implemented by the pilots and psychologists inzhenerami- implicitly and, consequently, on the basis of common sense.

The direct way of dealing with errors unconscious engagement can be increased time engagement procedure, including the delay of execution, to create a range of time required for the formation of a full-fledged program. It is very common in the aircraft taking the time to increase engagement is delaying the procedure.

Some of the flight mechanics informed us of the postponement of their actions: "I do not immediately execute the commander's command, but wait one or two seconds to understand what is happening." The same fact is noted by test pilot ML Gallai: "Having at our disposal, say, three seconds of time, a good experienced operator will not act, using only half a second, even if in principle capable of it. He stretches his actions for one and a half, two and a half seconds, redirecting the surpluses of time available to him to ensure maximum reliability, accuracy of his work.

Creation of a delay is facilitated by pronouncing aloud the responsible teams before their immediate execution. Special pronunciation for the purpose of conscious control of performance, we observed on the simulator. Bortmehanik, executing commands, says what he should do and what not to do, for example: "I turn off the stop-cock of the right engine, and not the other." Increasing the activation time is facilitated by the complication of the procedure for operating the controls: the presence of latches, fuses, caps, etc., which make the procedures two-three-step.

A curious way, aimed at preventing errors is the following reorganization of activity: mechanic, knowing the experience of other mechanic about the possibility of mix-control propellers and landing gear, the co-pilot asked instead to remove the screws from the lock.

As we have noted, operationalization by subjective means not always work, since there is a possibility of non-use.

For example, the experience of speaking is often ignored for a variety of reasons: subjective (unwillingness to comply with the primitive requirements of instructions, etc.), and objective (the need for prompt execution of the team, etc.). In addition, pronouncing sometimes brings harm; When manifestation of the phenomena of non-discrimination, fulfillment and non-fulfillment, pronouncing is based on erroneous confidence and misleads the commander of the ship. In addition, it is possible and automatic pronunciation. Therefore, more reliable is the operationalization of procedures, achieved at the expense of objective factors - a special design controls and indicators. This means that when designing the pilot's activity, special constructive measures must be taken to prevent the rationalization of procedures. This general requirement can be concretized by specifying a number of constructive principles, the realization of which provides an awareness of the error before it is committed.

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