The orbital plane
other
The orbital plane

The orbital plane

Orbital aircraft is a winged aircraft made in an airplane scheme that can independently or by additional devices enter the earth's orbit and perform the functions of an artificial satellite. Return from the orbit of the planet after the task is accomplished by a horizontal or vertical start. The landing takes place in an aircraft type. It should be noted that with the reduction, the lifting force of planning is actively used. The design of the device combines the design features of the spacecraft and aircraft.

The orbital plane is the aerospace system, or part of it. Design features may vary depending on the type of reaching orbit, due to this there are two main types: spaceships and spaceplane. It should be noted that the spaceships and space plane is not only orbiters since their flight can take off at an altitude of 100 kilometers (border space).

Spaceplane

These devices represented the second stage of the aerospace system is in orbit. The first project implemented in a given direction - the unit of American manufacturing X-15, 1960 which is produced in the year. Over 20 years it was the only hypersonic aircraft. He realized 15 flights, two of which were in space at an altitude of more than 100 kilometers. Accordingly, the pilots climbed above 100 kilometers, are automatically considered the astronauts.

With 1980 2000 of the year it was carried out using a large program kosmoplanov, part of which was included the Soviet apparatus "Buran" and the American "Space Shuttle". The work was carried out a lot of starts kosmoplanov. The creation kosmoplanov also engaged in other countries, namely, France, Japan, India and Germany. At the present stage of development of the United States continues to develop and test apparatus Boeing X-37.

It should be noted that the possibility of kosmoplanov opened a new round of development, since development in the world are private kosmoplanov who plan to use as a suborbital tourist ship.

Spaceship

Spacecraft consists of a single-stage game, these devices through the use of its own power plants are able to implement access to the Earth's orbit. Yet it should be noted that the design features of the engine and complexity of their creation are not yet allowed humanity to create a real spaceship.

The first draft of the manufacture of such machines by the German designer Zenger, who planned to create an orbital bomber in part for the Nazis.

More real development were presented only in 90-2000-ies. These projects were to fill a niche reusable spaceships. For example, in Russia it was developed spaceship type PARC. US manufactured car Venture Star, which is to produce a horizontal approach and vertical takeoff were also studies on the creation of the device with horizontal landing and take-off, which is dubbed as Rockwell X-30.

At the moment, the UK is developing a reusable spacecraft AKS-company Reaction Engines. The program is called Skylon. A feature of the device "Skylon" can be called an opportunity to rise to a height of 26 kilometers, while it is accelerated to a speed of 5,5 M. Only after this the device switches to power the engines of their own oxygen cylinders, which makes it possible to bring the spaceship into orbit.

British development can go into space without the use of steps for acceleration and additional accelerators that allows its use cheaper. The only engine provides full product lifecycle, from taxiing on the runway and ending with the conclusion in the space. Experts confirmed that the error in the calculations were found. Using this machine price of delivery of cargo into space may be reduced by almost half, depending on the type of load.

The main objective is the production of high-quality power plant, the development of which the UK government has allocated in year 2013 60 million pounds.

The next step in the development of this direction is the creation of single-stage reusable ACUs that will be remotely controlled. It should be noted that these areas were already being worked out in the USA on the X-43 apparatus, and in Russia the Igla and the Cold were designed. Other countries were involved in similar projects.

Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane
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upstairs