Passenger aircraft are often called airliner or commercial aircraft, the main task of these machines is the carriage of passengers and their luggage. Specific definition of this category does not exist, but still in the world are called passenger plane flying machine that has two or more engines, and the interior is designed to 20 people and more. The mass of the airplane when empty must be at least 20 tons.

A brief history of the development of passenger aircraft

The first aircraft in the world that could carry passengers, was a Russian unit under the designation of "Ilya Muromets". Despite the fact that this unit Sikorsky was made back in the year 1913, it was quite comfortable for passengers, since it was placed aboard a restaurant, a sleeping room and a bathroom. Demonstration flight of the machine showed that he can carry 16 people.

This aircraft belongs to the first record in the flight range, he was able to overcome the distance from St. Petersburg to Kiev and in the opposite direction. This unit carried out only one landing.

Further development of passenger aircraft was directed to the manufacture of smaller single-engine vehicles, such as K-1, 2-Steel, SS-35. Yet the first passenger aircraft, which were produced in large quantities, become planes LI-2 and 84-PS, in the US it was a DC-3.

During these years a massive apparatus for carrying passengers became Ford Trimotor, he produced in the United States. It was a plane with three piston engines, with equal passazhirovmestitelnost 8 men. Production was completed in 1933 year, but after that they continued to operate for a long time. It was replaced by a new aircraft DC-3. It should be noted that this device is the most popular for the production of passenger liner in the world. The aircraft was able to carry up to 32 people on board.

In European countries, the pre-war period of the highest quality aircraft to transport passengers became Ju52. Also widely used in aircraft and float chassis.

After the war, production of passenger aircraft was based on the modernization of existing heavy bombers. And with the advent of aviation in 50-ies such as the development of a jet passenger aircraft has reached a qualitatively new level of development. In the summer of the year 1949 first flew British aircraft of type De Havilland Comet, it was not entirely successful development since recorded many wrecks and 1954, he was removed from the flight. The leader of passenger aircraft was the USSR with its Tu-104 (1955 of release) and the American Boeing 707 (1954 of release).

Further development and progress were presented passenger aircraft Boeing and Airbus companies. The first supersonic airliners to transport passengers appeared in 60-ies were presented and domestic Tu-144 and European Concorde. These devices pretty soon were decommissioned due to crashes.

Aircraft that are manufactured today are not much different in appearance from the devices 60-ies. Modern aircraft focuses on creating a more efficient and less noisy aircraft power plants. An important aspect is quality avionics equipment. When you create a new aircraft uses a large number of composite materials, which help to reduce the weight of the structure.

Classification of passenger aircraft

Depending on the flight distance:

  • Aircrafts for local airlines - to 1000 kilometers.

  • Short-range - a range of up to 1 2,5 thousand kilometers (representative EMB 120).

  • Medium-range - a range of up to 2,5 6 thousand kilometers (representative CRJ 200).

  • Haul - more than 6 thousand kilometers.


They are also often referred to as jumbo jets, they have many records of their dimensions. The largest members of this class may have a length longer 70 meters, with a diameter in meters 6. This allows the cabin to accommodate up to 10 seats in the same row. They are also divided into one-decked and double-decker. The main objective of these vehicles is transportation of a large number of passengers over long distances. Due to the high cost of most airlines acquire them in leasing. Key members of the class: A380, IL-86, 747 Boeing and others.


They are more common than widebody. They are actively exploited in the messages to the average length of the flight. The number of passenger seats in the cabin is much smaller than in the wide-body vehicles. The diameter of these aircraft fuselage is less than 4 meters. Key members of the class: A320, Tu-154, 737 Boeing and others.


This category refers to a relatively small passenger liners, which can take on board up to 100 people and transported over a distance of up to 2,5 thousand kilometers. They can be equipped with a turbo-jet and turbo-prop engines. Key members of the class: ATR, SAAB, An-24, ERJ, Yak-40 and others.


The smallest passenger aircraft with a seating capacity of up to 20 people. Flights are carried out over a distance of thousands of kilometers from 1. The design often uses piston engines or turboprop engines. The main representatives of the class: Beechcraft, "Cessna".

Classification of aircraft:


Administrative plane



Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

The hybrid airship

Hypersonic aircraft


twin-boom aircraft



counterinsurgency aircraft



Flying Submarine


The orbital plane

Passenger plane

Generation jet fighter

missile carrier
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber


Transport aircraft

narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

wide-body aircraft
attack plane