Powder aircraft engine
Powder aircraft engine

Powder aircraft engine


Powder rocket engine - this is one of the simplest options for jet engines for aircraft and missiles. The fuel it uses solid fuel - the powder charge. As a rule, used smokeless gunpowder view, since it has a high combustion temperature and gives a powerful impetus to the aircraft. For missile is used as a main engine, and as regards aviation aircraft, that can be used as an extra for a large acceleration.

Modern powder rocket engine

Modern powder rocket engine. 1 - gunpowder bombs; 2 - the diaphragm; 3 - nozzle.

Such propellant boosters reduce the distance takeoff. After all of the fuel flow such engines in most cases detached from the main structure of the aircraft.

Historical data on the use of propellant engines.

The first recorded data about the use of gunpowder as an accelerator dated 960 year. At this time, the Chinese produced the first gunpowder rockets for military purposes. It is often mentioned in legends and stories of using powder charges for the flights. So, one of the legends narrated about trying to Wang Gu flight in an aircraft, missiles 47 charged with gunpowder.

In 1540 year it was published the book "On the pyrotechnics" author Vannochcho Biringuccio. Already at that time it was given first circuit structure powder rockets with one and several stages. Still, a huge amount of science fiction writers of those times used their modest knowledge of gunpowder and rocket engines to be able to get their characters to the remote corners of the planet, or even the moon.

More real design and creation of really successful powder engines began with the 19 century. So, in 1817 year the Englishman W. Kongreva was able to make a rocket with a flight range of 2,7 kilometers. In parallel, Russian designers I. Kartmazov and A. Zasyadko made their prototype, which was able to fly 2,69 kilometers. Further developments in this industry have made it possible to achieve even better indicators. In 1881, the domestic designer and researcher N. Kibalchich worked on the production of a manned propellant with a powder engine. In another 5 years, A. Ewald conducted a complex of experiments with a model of an airplane on a powder charge.

Of course, the breakthrough was the development of M. Pomortseva that in 1902 year produced with gunpowder rocket engine. Its features are stabilizing surfaces on the body and a more thought-out design of the engine. All this is possible to achieve the flight range in 9 kilometers.

In creating gunpowder engines did not lag behind and German designers. So 20-ies of the last century, quite well-known designer of automobiles Fritz von Opel powder charges used to accelerate the bike and the bike, and then conducted experiments with the car. In April 1928 years constructor set for a racing car model Opel-Rak 12 missiles with solid fuel. This accelerator is allowed to reach speeds in 112 km / h. In May of the same year established a 24-car charging station missiles, which disperse the car up to speed 200 km / h.

After the experiments, F. Opel began testing powder engines on aircraft. A rocket-propelled aircraft was created called Opel RK 22 in 1928 year. In parallel, A. Lipshe created a similar flying machine called "Duck", she was able to fly in one minute 1,2 kilometers on the powder accelerator. As for Opel's device, he was able to reach the speed of 152 km / h in flight. A year later, namely in October 1929, the designer G. Espenlaub tested his flying machine. The rocket was equipped with 15 rocket charges, which could lift the car into the air, but during the flight the aircraft caught fire.

As for the development of the USSR in this industry, they began actively from the 30-ies. It was possible to build a plane in which powder charges were used as additional ones, it had the name U-1. The testing was excellent, and then decided to install similar accelerators on a bomber type TB-1. For high-quality overclocking, 3 powder charge was installed on each side of the device body. It is worth noting that the mass of the entire set of accelerators was only 60 kilogram. At the same time for two seconds of work, they produced traction in 10 400 kgf. This power was enough to ensure that the 7-ton bomber could reduce its takeoff when taking off from 330 meters to 80 meters.

Similar tests were conducted on the Soviet fighters in 1935 year. Despite getting huge traction, such installations have not been widely used in the aircraft industry.

During the Second World War gunpowder boosters for their aircraft are widely used Japan and Germany. Also, during degradation of the end of the war, they conducted the development of attack aircraft, which was used as a solid-core engine aircraft propulsion. On the basis of these projects were created by jets for suicide missions against ships. Such aircraft are widely used Japan, the most striking example is the device "Oka".

All further development of performance only improved range and accuracy of flight. Yet in most cases, more use of gunpowder engines and used for building rockets than in aviation. Although these accelerators for solid fuel had considerable help in aircraft.

Features of the structure and operation of the engine powder

Powder aircraft engine are often called a rocket engine solid fuel, abbreviated SRM. When using such engines used association oxidizer and solid fuel in a single mass. All this is located directly in the combustion chamber, rather than in additional fuel tanks in fluid models. In addition to facilitating the design, it is more reliable and easy as excluded fuel supply system. The simplest and most striking example of this design is the usual powder rocket.

First of all, it is worth noting that the use of RTD in aviation is necessary to achieve certain tasks. Of course, the main task, which is solved by additional powder engines, is a significant increase in the thrust-to-weight ratio of the aircraft at a certain stage of the flight. In most cases, this is necessary for take-off. There are not always excellent conditions for take-off and normal take-off of the aircraft. It was especially important during the days of piston aviation and at the first stages of the development of reactors on liquid fuels. This made it possible to significantly reduce the distance of the take-off of the aircraft. Such a quick start helped to avoid tight shelling of enemy weapons. Also, there were fighter models that used powdered accelerators to quickly reach the enemy's air target. The increase in thrust-to-weight ratio at a certain extreme moment of flight makes it possible to solve combat missions more easily and effectively.

Disadvantages advantages of gunpowder engines

The undeniable advantage is the simplicity of the design, as well as the exclusion of fuel leakage, a high degree of safety in use and reliability. Similar designs may be stored for a long time.

As for the disadvantages, there is need to emphasize the low specific impulse performance and complexity in the management of traction. Reduce or disable the traction possible. In operation, causing severe vibration of the airframe. Exhaust waste gases sufficiently toxic and damages the environment.

Fuel used:

  • The homogeneous fuel type, which is a solid solution of nitrocellulose in nitroglycerine. Typically, such fuel is used to launch large rockets.

  • Mixed type of fuel. This is usually a mixture of a solid oxidizer with the primary fuel.

The first rocket fuel was a mixture of saltpeter, sulfur and charcoal. Further, they began to use ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizer together with polymer fuel (in space rocketry). In the modern world, these types of engines are used for rocket modeling. This creates simpler mixtures based on more readily available potassium nitrate and organic binders such as sugar or sorbitol.

As a result, it is worth emphasizing that the powder engines are not relevant for modern aircraft. Even the space industry is developing more efficient and affordable missile launchers. 

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