Carrier rocket "Cyclone"
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Carrier rocket "Cyclone"

Carrier rocket "Cyclone"

Author: Igor Makarov.

Part 2.

Part 1. Part 3, Part 4. Part 5.

The family of launch vehicles "Cyclone" - a space transport system that is used for rapid, high-precision launching into circular, geostationary and sun-synchronous orbit of one or a group of multi-purpose spacecraft.

For this class boosters designed and implemented by the original technology of fully automated cycle prelaunch preparation. That is a very important feature to start from the aircraft, because the opportunity to prepare a missile using human attraction is directly in the flight will not be.

Cyclone is a disposable light-class launch vehicle for launching spacecraft to low near-earth orbits. The first launch of the Cyclone took place in 1969. The design of the carrier allows spacecraft to be output on energy-optimal circular and elliptical trajectories. Designed by the design bureau "Yuzhno" (Ukraine). Manufacturing "Southern Machine-Building Plant. A.M. Makarova "(NPO Yuzhmash) in Dnepropetrovsk. Over the entire period of operation of the booster, more than 100 launches were performed that were successful. Missiles - carriers such as "Cyclone" have proven to be reliable in the world. It should be noted that the reliability factor is one of the requirements for missiles, because rocket technology has not yet achieved perfect safety and reliability. Special conditions for launching a launch vehicle from a dynamic platform also dictate additional conditions.

Taking into account the modern requirements of customers of space services to the means of withdrawal, it is planned to work on the creation of a Cyclone family booster with improved characteristics. Cyclone -4 - the first launch is scheduled for 2015 year from the Alcantara cosmodrome (Brazil). At the moment, units and components of the rocket passed the full range of tests.

cycloneThe new booster will improve the energy performance of engines, introduced a modern management system and the main cowl with increased volume to accommodate the payload.

Booster with improved characteristics allow to run into a circular orbit a payload of up to 4,5 m., And in geostationary orbit to 1,7 t.

Multistage rockets can be made in three schemes, the most used of them being a sequential scheme for placing stages. In this case, the individual stages are sequentially activated and the missile is accelerated to a certain speed. After working off all the fuel, the degree is separated. Due to this, each following stage accelerates the system of smaller weight, which allows obtaining the necessary speed at the end of the active section (the work of the engine) with a relatively small mass of the structure. A rocket with a successive telescopic junction is proposed in the work, to what extent the higher situated ones enter the lower degrees. This allows you to create an additional impulse at the time of separation of degrees and reduce the weight of fuel, which is necessary to accelerate the missile. But on the other hand, such a system has more weight.

Advantages of missiles with a serial connection are the steps:

1. less drag in the dense layers of the atmosphere;

2. lower values ​​destabilizing moments.

When maneuvering missiles it can influence the horizontal gust. For the device vertically flying is associated with an abrupt change in velocity.

Modification of the booster is to provide a bearing surface with which it will be able to make the maneuver "Hill", followed by a reduction, inhibition, withdrawal of missiles into the desired position (upright, with which it is best to carry out the launch), elaboration of management tools, the development of special fixtures Booster to the plane.

Several details should refer to the use of a braking parachute and bearing surfaces Booster (wings). It is these elements are key to the strategy proposed launch.

Wing

The main purpose of the wing - a lifting force that is necessary for flight of the aircraft.

In addition, the wing provides the lateral stability of the aircraft and carries on itself the transverse controls, controls - ailerons. Means of mechanization and more often the main landing gear, engine nacelles, pylons for fastening rockets, bombs and outboard fuel tanks join the wing. Internal volumes of the wings are used to accommodate fuel, various equipment with communications. An anti-icing system is most often installed on a wing tip.

External forms, the importance of space, materials, construction - power schemes, weight indicators and other parameters of the wing are determined based on the relevant calculations (aerodinamicheskogo, strength, weight, etc.). In the design of the aircraft.

Ovalovidnoe wing - this wing, which has not yet received widespread use, since it is necessary to manufacture a lot of production costs. This wing was developed back in 80 - years of the twentieth century. The only plane in which the wings are used, it is - an experimental aircraft Minsk factory "tuning fork".

This type of wing has good quality weight, because it can replace not only the wing, and horizontal and vertical tail, as well as ovalovidnoe wing - the wing-type biplane, so this option wing author of the best finds. The side of the wing works as rudder, lower - like the wing of an airplane, and the top - as the horizontal tail. Also, the wing has a greater strength compared with other types of wings is due to its construction.

When using this type of wings, the booster will be an aerodynamically unstable structure. This option was chosen by the author in order to reduce the necessary weight of the bearing surfaces, because the statically unstable layout does not require additional placement of the surfaces from the designers, creating a dive moment. But along with the weight advantages, such a scheme has drawbacks in control: it is much more difficult to control an aerodynamically statically unstable body, which is due to the mechanism of creating the lift. Therefore, in order to eliminate these drawbacks, the author proposes the following scheme for attaching a wing to a launch vehicle, which is a statically unstable aerodynamic scheme.

Development wing.

Ovalovidnoe wing provides great stability, because it has rounded at the end and supreme agility, precisely because of this fact, the author prefers this kind of wings. Furthermore the wing does not require structural elements that are perceived bending forces, because the structure (oval) allows to distribute them between the structural elements of the wing without additional amplification.

In the middle of the wing will be placed ribs (transverse force set), spars (longitudinal force set) - 3 unit for which the wing is attached to the launcher and ribs (additional longitudinal force set).

For the development of bearing surfaces booster is proposed to use fiberglass and carbon fiber cladding and boron - aluminum for the load-bearing elements bearing surfaces booster. Fiberglass and carbon fiber have the same strength as the aluminum (used in the aviation industry), but they are lighter.

Boro - aluminum - is a composite material which has high strength and reduced weight compared to metal, which is also used in the construction of aircraft.

Aerodynamic interference fender flares.

Experiments have established that the body, which are close to each other in the air stream, is carried out a reciprocal influence on the flow pattern of the air flow. The nature of the flow changes, also changes the distribution of the pressure forces and friction on the surface of the body, and therefore the aerodynamic forces.

This is the mutual influence of surfaces on each other is called: wind interference.

When transporting the booster aircraft will most interference between the wing and the aircraft booster.

In order to avoid such negative phenomena is proposed to place a rocket as high as possible at a small angle of attack relative samoleta- transporter.

Another case of aerodynamic interference can occur between the upper and lower portions of the wing booster. In order to reduce the negative impact of the author suggests how to reduce the width of the wing and the "bump" the upper part of the wing of the booster can be above the bottom.

Attaching the wing to the booster

Accession will take place with the help of 3 power frames (see. Annex № 4). Power frame - a cross-power element of the aircraft structure, which takes external loads and serves as the connection of the various components of the aircraft.

Power averaged frames are loaded from the action of forces of the aircraft, as well as the payload to them. Frames made in the form of a frame - rings are the most versatile, so it is used in such power-frame. The second factor, which is due to the use of force in the form of frames of the frame - the ring is the very form of the booster.

Booster

To ensure the required flight characteristics of missiles and maneuver "slide" the author of the work proposed the use of boosters to provide the rocket - carrier the necessary thrust.

Booster - an auxiliary engine, intended for short-term increase of thrust-weight ratio of the aircraft during take-off.

Accelerators are used mainly in military aircraft. As the accelerator is usually used for solid rocket motors discharged at the end of work. Features such accelerators - a small (about 10 c) duration and low specific gravity (a high ratio of thrust of the accelerator to its weight). Accelerators provide a significant improvement in the energy characteristics of the aircraft.

Drag chute

To start a wasp booster is necessary at the second stage of the trajectory to use a brake parachute. Its main function - after the shooting of the main bearing surface - wings, bring the rocket in a vertical position, to brake it, and after performing the above functions of shooting and fall to the ground. The author suggests the possibility of re-use of a parachute.

Parachute - device for safe descent into the air from a great height, and human goods, which uses air resistance.

There are two main types of parachute in the form of the dome: a parachute with a round dome (round parachute) and a parachute with a rectangular (or elliptical) canopy (parachute - wing).

Separately, used parachutes to reduce the rate of aircraft and spacecraft during landing. The range of speeds and loads vary considerably.

Round parachutes reduce the rate of fall mostly exclusively by air resistance. They have a hemispherical shape at the lower edge of the attached straps (rope), which is held by the load. To stabilize the decrease in the dome top pole typically opening through which air passes. This prevents swinging chute.

Parachutes - reduce the rate of fall of the wing due to the lift of air flow. Their cross-section corresponds to the profile of an aircraft wing. This can significantly reduce the area of ​​parachute and weight, almost 10 times.

Brake parachutes are used to reduce the braking distance (of the jet military and some types of transport aircraft) and the decrease in the rate of incidence (eg, space capsule).

Parachute - Parachute brake system or - braking system is used for braking the vehicle by artificially reducing the aerodynamic qualities.

Time stretching and filling domes braking parachutes averages 1,5-3 with.

Parachute - brake system consists of a container, exhaust and main parachutes (including canopy and straps), mechanisms of shooting cover, locking system and automation unit. After opening the valves of the container into the flow of the spring pushes the pilot chute, which retrieves the case and the main parachute. Dome systems are made of durable material that can withstand the required load, such as nylon.

Scheme of action of the braking parachute: the introduction of the brake parachute into action begins by opening the door flaps of the parachute container. At the same time, the exhaust air parachute is the first to enter the air stream, the dome of which, being filled with air, loses its speed and lags behind the aircraft. Connected to the main, the exhaust chute draws its dome and slings to its full length, and when using a dome cover - it charges it from the dome of the main parachute. During the pulling out, the braking parachute practically does not perform a braking action on the aircraft. Only filling with air, the dome of the brake parachute begins to exert a braking effect.

At that moment, when the canopy is completely filled with a braking parachute on the rocket carrier will avozdeystvovat little jerk, the duration of which is very small Which times more drag . The coefficient of dynamic depends on the air permeability of the shell of the dome and the velocity head and ranges from 1,1-2. After the breakthrough, which lasts tenths of a second, the resistance to movement of the parachute becomes equal to its full aerodynamic resistance .

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