Rocket Sarmat: photo, specifications, video
Rocket Sarmat: photo, specifications, video

Rocket Sarmat: photo, specifications, video

PC-28 "Sarmat" (according to the NATO classification Satan-2) is a Russian promising strategic missile system of the 5-based mine silo with a heavy multi-stage intercontinental ballistic missile. It was intended to replace the P-36M missile system (SS-18 "Satan).


The concept of the Sarmat complex is not just an emphasis on the maximum weight of warheads, as in P-36M, which can be affected by the missile defense system, but the delivery, if not of such a large number of warheads, but along the trajectories and methods that are significantly hampered by their destruction even by promising complexes. Missile defense The technology of "orbital bombardment", embedded in the rocket with a strike on the territory of the United States on a suborbital trajectory through the South Pole of the Earth, bypassing the deployed missile defense facilities and allows civilian spacecraft launches.


In addition, the Avangard guided warheads (U-71) allow Soviet and Russian ICBMs to be used for the first time in local wars with a “global strike” strategy, without a nuclear explosion with the destruction of strategic targets of opponents by the kinetic energy of a combat unit.


The rocket uses a modernized RD-264 engine, which has already been used by the Soviet-made P-36М2 MBR.

rocket engine RD-264

The Sarmat ICBM should enter serial production at the Krasnoyarsk Engineering Plant in 2021; the first regiment, equipped with such missiles, will be on combat duty by the same date.


How did it all begin?


By the middle of the 20 century, mankind had fallen into a “nuclear trap”. Compared with other types of weapons, the simple qualitative and quantitative superiority of WMD units of any country in the world did not guarantee victory. The fact of mass use of nuclear warheads of one of the countries can lead to the death of all mankind. With 70, strategic parity acts as a guarantee of peace, however, weapons of mass destruction act as instruments of political pressure.


Guaranteed answer or first strike?


Today, the very presence and number of charges plays a secondary role. Now the urgent task is either the possibility of an unpunished attack, or to ensure retaliation for the aggressor country. If the deployment of a US-made global missile defense system is designed to carry out an offensive doctrine, the development of a retaliatory strike weapon is the main and priority direction in the development of Russia's strategic forces.


To date, the basis of the Strategic Missile Forces are the carriers of "Voevoda" (they are known as "Satan"). They can not intercept any anti-missile system. These ICBMs were made back in Soviet times in Dnepropetrovsk, which became Ukrainian after the collapse of the USSR.

nuclear missile "Satan"

With all its advantages, the complexes fire, just like any military equipment. Not so long ago, military analysts assumed that their lifespan continued until the 2022 year, but the current political situation, associated with specific maintenance issues, dictates a decrease in the time remaining to their testing. But the task of adopting the modern Sarmat strategic carrier has become even more urgent. In 2018, the rocket should replace those in service in the Voivode’s mines.


Correlation of forces


To date, nuclear weapons that are in service with all countries are distributed as follows: approximately 45% of such combat stocks are in the Russian Federation and the USA. The number of charges is known and, according to the contract, START 3 is approximately in 1550 units. land and sea-based plus 700 pcs. on aviation means.


By the number of carriers, the picture is slightly different. Russia has their 528, and America has 794. But this does not speak about the advantages of the probable enemy, it is simply that the USA has a large number of monoblock systems.


90% of all atomic (neutron, hydrogen) charges are in service with the American and Russian army. The remaining 10% are owned by the PRC, Britain, France and other countries of the “nuclear cube”. It is difficult to say which side will choose the state in a global conflict. It is possible that many of them (who are not part of NATO) will choose neutrality.


New "Satan"

By the end of the second decade of the 21 century, the Sarmat ballistic missile will replace the “Governor” - “Satan”, which performs the task of a guarantor of retribution. In accordance with the times, the number of PC-20B exceeded 3 hundreds, now their 52. All of them have 10 combat units installed, a total of 520 warheads (750 kilotons of TNT equivalent) - this is almost a third of the total sea and land strategic defense capabilities.


The weight of "Governor" - more than 200 tons. The nuclear potential of the Russian Federation is being updated; in 2015, the Strategic Missile Forces will receive 500 new sets of other types, but they will have to perform other tasks. As a rule, these are mobile installations that are on duty in operational areas.


"Satan" is terrible 2 with its important features: a huge destructive power and the ability to quickly pass the missile defense line. Each such carrier can turn an entire metropolis with its surroundings and an industrial area into a jet desert. It is assumed that the Sarmat rocket will replace the powerful carrier in the world at about the time it reaches the 30 summer age, which is very honorable for the ICBMs.


The main difference between the new rocket


All design, development and manufacture of new weapons were assigned to the state center. Makeeva, which is located in Miass (Chelyabinsk region). The designers are not limited to the modernization of "Satan", despite the fact that she showed herself well, and immediately decided to choose the difficult path of the pioneers. The main task was to create a more light and compact sample. Thus, the “Sarmat” was conceived - a rocket, the indicators of which should have significantly exceeded the characteristics of the Russian strategic missile forces that were previously in service. The main indicator of any ballistic projectile is its power supply, that is, the ratio of weight to force, causing it to move. In this area a significant breakthrough was planned. “Satan” is a heavy 210-ton rocket, while Sarmat’s mass is two times less.

Liquid fuel


Most of the weight of the rocket accounts for fuel, which is in the steps. All strategic carriers are divided into 3 main categories:

  • Heavy up to 200 t weight (at the moment there are no big ones yet).
  • Medium - from 51 to 100 t.
  • Lightweight, weighing up to 50 t.


This gradation is also explained by the flight range: the more fuel there is, the correspondingly longer the range will be. For example, American Minutemen weigh 35 t and fall into the category of lungs. Relatively low weight is a huge advantage, because these missiles need less bulky mines, they are easier to hide and transport. But at the same time, they are almost all solid fuel. And it gives a huge number of advantages: the shelf life increases, highly toxic components are not used, maintenance is less expensive. But the problem is that the energy content of solid fuels will be lower compared to liquid. Therefore, the "Sarmat" is a liquid-fuel rocket. So far nothing is known about the power plant, except that its power supply has no equal.




Making a new technical sample always implies a serious risk, but if successful, it is fully justified.


Work on this project began in 2009. KB, after 2's summer research, has finally begun to be tested.

on tests in 2018

At the beginning of autumn 2011, the vicinity of the Kapustin YAR space center was hit by a powerful explosion. The Sarmat rocket, on which serious hopes were pinned, a few minutes after the launch, fell to the ground. All further launches, too, unfortunately, were unsuccessful.


Only a year later there was a successful launch. This time, the experts took into account the basic indicators of ballistics. Tests have shown that the Sarmat liquid missile is capable of overcoming more 11 000 km, while carrying a fighting compartment weighing 4350 kg. In the spring of 2014, Y. Borisov (Deputy Minister of Defense) announced that all work on the development of a new strategic complex was proceeding smoothly, according to a clearly planned schedule. He believes that the new Sarmat rocket will have no restrictions in the direction of combat use, will be able to hit targets along trajectories that pass through both poles of the planets. This is extremely important, as NATO protected systems are not designed for such versatility.



missile warhead "Sarmat"

Sarmat has unique energy and mass characteristics. The launch vehicle is certainly an important element of the design, but the combat unit containing the 10 parts of individual guidance is no less significant. And he, apparently, is also unique. That's because each of the warheads combines the qualities of 2 different types of weapons: hypersonic and cruise missiles. Both types of weapons still had a delineated range of tasks. Until today, the RK with the flat trajectory did not fly so fast.


Winged hypersonic blocks


The characteristics of the warheads are contradictory. All because the usual type of cruise missile sneaks up to the enemy at a relatively low speed. Given the terrain, hiding behind its irregularities, it is forced to be slow-moving, so that the electronic "brain" could manage to assess the obstacles, as well as develop solutions for flying around them. For example, the American Tomahawk CD flies at the speed of a passenger liner (less than 900 km per hour).


In addition, a cruise missile has a mass (like any other aircraft), which means that the inertia and the control actions of the air rudders must be preventive. Thus, the units of the Sarmat ICBM are also in operation. The rocket, whose indicators are as close to hypersonic as possible, after separation, begins to maintain a flat trajectory, which makes its interception impossible.

Photo 8



All the advantages of the unique personal control of the warheads of the divided head are surrounded by useless ones if the enemy can destroy the ICBM before it enters the combat course. The Sarmat rocket flies fast, however, its trajectory at any moment can leave the usual predictable arc - the parabola. Additional shunting engines change direction, altitude, speed, and then the on-board computer determines new flight indicators for reaching the target. Such unpredictability is inherent also for other types of modern domestic carriers of nuclear charges. As a result, it became their “calling card” or asymmetric response to the attempts of a potential enemy to ensure their own invulnerability, which would allow them to strike the first blow.


Invulnerability on earth


For an aggressor who has planned to launch a massive unpunished nuclear strike, the most important task is to deprive the enemy of the opportunity to respond to this strike at the initial stage of the outbreak of a military conflict. This means that launchers, ground and aircraft carriers must be destroyed (neutralized) by the very first volley. But this is unlikely. The mines where the Sarmat missiles are located are distinguished by multilevel protection both passive (high reliability of fortifications) and active (in the form of air defense and anti-missile systems). For 100% of the damage to the underground launcher, you will need to apply at least 7 accurate nuclear strikes to the operational deployment area covered by the missile defense system. In addition, the location of the dislocation is not yet declassified. And the Sarmat rocket itself is a state secret. Only information that is intended for military analysts and the media is disclosed.

missile mine "Sarmat"

Device and performance characteristics 


The Sarmat rocket employs an engine that was created on the basis of the reliable engine NPO Energomash RD-264. According to Colonel-General S. Karakaev, the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces, the rocket uses a mine-based system and can be located in ready-made mine launchers. The complex carries out a mortar launch, a powder accumulator pressure, as a result, it throws a rocket out of a mine at an altitude of 20-30 m, after which it automatically activates the rocket engine.


According to the first sketches of the rocket, most experts considered it to be two-step. After the placement of the official photo of the rocket, some sources suggested that the rocket could be a three-stage one, just like the classical launch vehicles that bring satellites into orbit.


The liquid propellant rocket engines of the steps were “sunk” into the fuel tank, while the fuel tanks were carrying combined spacers. The rocket will use reliable and proven engines from the P-36M, such as the RD-264 in their improved PC-99 modification, the test of which is effectively completed.


The expert of the Command Military Institute of Rocket Forces of the PRC, Chu Fuhai, believes that two modifications of the missiles with different reserves of fuel will be created for hitting targets in Western Europe and the United States. The initial weight of the missile with the target in the USA is 150-200 t, the flight range is 16 000 km, the payload is 5 t. The range of the rocket aimed at Western European countries is 9000-10 000 km, the starting weight is 100-120 t, the maximum weight is X weight - 10 t.


One rocket, according to experts, carries from 10 to 15 warheads (it all depends on their power). When delivering 10 warheads, their power is 750 CT each. Also, some experts believe that conventional warheads are used, if maneuvering Yu-71 hypersonic warheads are used, there will be three of them, and each one will weigh around 1 t.


The Sarmat rocket is not the first rocket, which has such a difference in range and load indicators in different variants, since such indicators are related. Practically based on the same technology, P-36 and P-36 orb with a single 180 weight t have ranges depending on the mass of the loaded 10 000 km, 15 000 km and Orbital Bombardment warheads.

Photo 10

In addition, it should be borne in mind that, in addition to warheads, according to the designers, a significant mass limit will be set aside for traditional missile defense systems, such as false targets. In the event that classic spurious targets such as inflatable warhead simulators, angular, springy, and additional reflectors are heavy, then when entering the atmosphere, simulating warheads are quasi-heavy false targets, and although they are lighter than warheads, their weight is still quite substantial , since they represent a rocket with heat protection, plasma generator, pre-accelerating engine and EW module for luminescence, imitation of the trajectory and EPR of the warhead.


Device and tactical and technical characteristics of the combat unit


According to Izvestia, this combat unit can have the following tactical and technical characteristics:

  • maximum airspeed in the atmosphere - 15M (with an average speed indicator - in the range - 5-7 kilometers per second);
  • products operates at an altitude of about 100 km (this is the upper boundary of the atmosphere of planet Earth);
  • A warhead produces maneuvers in the atmosphere while descending to overcome missile defense.


Mysterious "Sarmat"


Secret is covered with everything connected with the development of this complex. This is the case when not all taxpayers will be able to find out in the near future what their paid funds are going to. Only the meager promises of news media about successful launches and safety over your head are proof that the state money was not spent in vain.


At present, too little is known about “Sarmat”. In all likelihood, this class of nuclear weapons carriers will have to play the role of the country's main shield, along with aviation, maritime and mobile systems. Published only some scattered data about what constitutes a Sarmat rocket. Tactical and technical characteristics are also given only approximate: radius of action - 11 thousand. Kilometers, but it also gives the opportunity to defeat the targets of a potential enemy through the South polis.

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