Development GTD
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Development GTD

Development GTD

First (in 1950-60-ies.) Were used rather simple control algorithms, according to which the hydraulic and mechanical devices to perform control of the rotor speed of the engine with the introduction of the necessary effects of the derivative and the variable gain as elements of adaptation to the operating mode (PID regulators).

The development of GTE more complex circuits with adjustable elements of the flowing part (compressor guide (nozzle), nozzle), afterburner combustion chamber (FCC), adjustable screw, increasing the level of process parameters (temperature and gas pressure) led to more complicated control tasks caused by interaction Control loops, the emergence of areas of joint work of regulators. The possibilities of solving the arising problems were related to the development of methods for reducing the influence of the interaction of the control channels, in particular, the construction of autonomous automatic control systems, the application and development of the theory of invariance, taking into account the features of the GTE control.

Further expansion of the scope of problems solved in flight, increased demands on the engine in terms of the basic characteristics (specific parameters, reliability, service life) require a more accurate account of changing flight conditions, increase the accuracy of controls on the steady and transient modes of operation to allow for the implementation of the characteristics of the engine embodied in its design, and increase the efficiency of the aircraft.

The solution to these problems has been made possible with the development of adaptive and integrated management of the SU, allowing means of automatic control to obtain the characteristics of the engine and the SS as a whole are best for specific flight conditions, such as the best engine efficiency in cruise flight, highly maneuverable fighter aircraft required reserves GDU at the action of strong disturbances (internal and external), and when flying at high altitudes, and so on. n.

Hardware solutions. The possibilities of using control methods are closely related to the hardware solutions used in the creation of GTE regulators, which are determined in turn by technological advances in the field of materials, electronics, optics, etc. At the initial stage of the development of GTE and their ACS, these capabilities were limited to the lack of efficient The conditions for placing electronic devices on the engine and aircraft, and the regulators were performed hydromechanically or pneumatically, and later on the elements of pneumonia. At first these were simple hydromechanical regulators of two or three parameters, but

already 1970-ies. appeared highly complex structures with spatial cam pairs air reducers membrane devices et al., provides regulation and limitation tens parameters.

Operation of the electronic controls of the analog-type gas turbine engines

In 1960-ies. Start of development and operation of electronic controllers analog type, and the beginning of 1970-ies. - The first digital electronic controllers.

The development of electronic technologies in the subsequent period (1980-90-ies), which led to the creation of sufficiently reliable thermo- and vibration-resistant electronic components, allowed the creation of digital electronic control systems that have practically no restrictions on the volume and complexity of the information processed for the GTE management tasks. At the first stage of their implementation, supervisory-type systems were developed in which the electronic regulator controlled, influencing the installation of a hydromechanical controller in a limited range of its variation, as well as systems with electronic limiters for engine parameter limits (gas temperature, rotational speed). In the future, as the electronic element base (increasing the degree of integration, thermal stability and, as a result, reliability) and confirming the reliability of electronic systems in operation have been improved, digital electronic control systems with full responsibility of type FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control). In such systems, the electronic controller performs direct control of the motor regulating elements (factors) and performs all control functions in a full range of operating conditions.

These are modern automatic control systems for all types of GTE (turbojet dual-path engines (TRDD) for passenger and transport aircraft, TRDD with FKS (turbo propeller), turboprop engines, turbo-gas turbo engines (GTDT), etc.). The architecture of the systems, as a rule, corresponds to a centralized scheme. With this construction, a special on-board digital control machine (BCMS) is used to process information and generate engine control signals. Sensors and actuators (MIs) are connected to the BCUU mainly by analogue communication lines. The automatic engine control system is hardware and algorithmically integrated with other JIA systems.

Contact with them by means of wire multiplexer information exchange channel (ICEE). The engine control lever position (throttle) is entered into the control system in the form of an electrical signal rather than by mechanical linkages, as it was when using hydromechanical regulators.

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