jet plane
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jet plane

jet plane

Jet plane - a flying machine, which carries out the flight in the air through the use of its design jet engines. They can be turbojet, straight-flow, a pulsating type of liquid. Also jets can be equipped with a rocket engine type. In today's jet aircraft occupy a large part of all modern aircraft.

A brief history of the development of jet aircraft

The history of the jet 1910 the world is considered to be the year when the designer and engineer named Henri Romania CONADI has created the basis for the aircraft with piston engine. Unlike standard models was the use of a compressor vane, which leads the car in motion. Particularly active constructor began to argue after the war, his unit was equipped with a jet engine it is, although initially he stated categorically the opposite.

By studying the structure of the pore jet A. CONADI, you can draw several conclusions. The first - the design features of the car show that is located in front of the engine and its exhaust gases would have killed the pilot. The second option could only be of a fire on the plane. That's about it, and said the designer, when you first start a fire was destroyed by the tail.

As for the type of jet aircraft, which have been produced in 1940-th year, they had quite different construction, when the engine and the pilot's seat has been removed, and consequently, it enhances security. In places where the flame in contact with the fuselage engine was equipped with a special heat-resistant steel, which did not bring the body mutilation and destruction.

The first prototypes and developments

Of course, the planes with turbojet propulsion have far more benefits than aircraft with piston engines.

  • The aircraft of German origin, under the designation He 178 was first raised in the air 27.08.1939 years.

  • In 1941 year it rose into the sky like the unit of British designers with the name of Gloster E.28 / 39.

Devices with rocket engines

  • He 176, established in Germany, carried out the first separation from the runway 20.07.1939 years.

  • Soviet aircraft flew BI-2 May 1942 years.

Aircraft with multicompressor engine (they are considered conditionally airworthiness)

  • Campini N.1 - made in Italy for the first time the plane took off in late August 1940 years. It was reached in airspeed 375 km / h and is even smaller than the piston analogue.

  • Japanese aircraft "Oka" with the engine Tsu-11 was designed for single use, as it was a plane-bomb suicide pilot on board. Because of the defeat in the war and has not been completed yet final combustion chamber.

  • At the expense of borrowed technology in France and the Americans were able to make their own model aircraft with a jet engine, which became Bell P-59. The machine had two engine jet type. The first breakaway from the runway recorded in October 1942 years. It should be noted that this machine has been quite successful since its manufacture was carried out in series. The device has some advantages over a piston counterparts, but still in the fighting, he did not participate.

The first successful jet prototypes

Germany:

  • Created engine Jumo-004 has been applied to several experimental and commercial aircraft. It should be noted that this is the first power plant in the world, who had axial compressor as modern fighters. US and USSR this type of engine has received much later.

  • Me.262 aircraft fitted with engines Jumo-004 type first flew 18.07.1942 years 43 and within a month made his first sortie. Advantages of the fighter in the air were significant. There was a delay in the launch of a series of incompetent leadership.

  • Jet scout-bomber type Ar 234 1943 made in the summer of the year, was also equipped with an engine Jumo-004. It is actively used in the last months of the war, as only he could work in a situation with a strong predominance of the enemy.

United Kingdom:

  • The first jet fighter, made by the British, was the aircraft Gloster Meteor, which was established in March 43-year, and adopted it took 27.07.1944 years. At the end of the war the main task was to intercept fighter aircraft of Germany, who carried cruise missiles such as the V-1.

USA:

  • The first jet fighter unit in the United States has become under the designation Lockheed F-80. The first breakaway from the runway recorded in January 1944 years. The aircraft engine was the type of Allison J33, which is considered a modified version of the engine installed on the machine Gloster Meteor. Baptism of fire occurred in the Korean War, but it was soon replaced by a plane F-86 Sabre.

  • The first carrier-based fighter jet was ready in 1945 year, he was designated as the FH-1 Phantom.

  • Jet bomber in the United States was ready to 1947 year, it was the B-45 Tornado. Further development has created the car B-47 Stratojet with engine AllisonJ35. This engine was self-development without the introduction of technologies in other countries. As a result, the bomber was made, which is operated and now, namely in-52.

THE USSR:

  • The first jet aircraft in the Soviet Union became the MiG-9. First off - 24.05.1946 years. Total received from the factories 602 such aircraft.

  • Yak-15 - is a fighter jet, which was in service with the Air Force. The aircraft is considered to be a model transition from piston to jet.

  • MiG-15 1947 made in December of the year. Actively used in the military conflict in Korea.

  • Jet bomber Il-22 1947 made in the year, he was the first in the further development of the bombers.

Supersonic jets

  • Unique in the history of aviation from the deck bomber capabilities supersonic motion - the plane A-5 «Vigilante."

  • Supersonic fighter deck type - F-35 and Yak-141.

The Civil Aviation Authority was created only two passenger aircraft with the possibility of flying at supersonic speeds. The first was made in the USSR in 1968 year and is denoted as the Tu-144. It is made 16 such aircraft, but after a series of disasters machine was decommissioned.

The second passenger machine of this type manufactured in France and the UK 1969 year. Were built 20 aircraft continued to operate on 1976 2003 year.

Records jets

  • Airbus A380 can place on the board 853 person.

  • Boeing 747 35 over the years was the biggest passenger plane with passazhirovmestitelnostyu in 524 person.

Freight:

  • An-225 «Mriya" - the only car in the world, which has a carrying capacity of tons 250. It was originally made for the transport space system "Buran".

  • An-124 "Ruslan" - one of the largest aircraft in the world with a payload of 150 tons.

  • It was the largest cargo plane until "Ruslan", capacity is 118 tons.

Maximum flight speed

  • The aircraft Lockheed SR-71 reaches speeds in 3 529 km / h. Made 32 aircraft can not make off with full tanks.

  • MiG-25 - normal airspeed in 3 000 km / h and can accelerate to 3 400 km / h.

Future prototypes and development

Passenger:

Large:

  • High Speed ​​Civil.
  • Tu-244.

Business Class:

  • SSBJ, Tu-444.

  • SAI Quiet, Aerion SBJ.

Hypersonic:

  • Reaction Engines A2.

Managed Laboratory:

  • Quiet Spike.

  • Tu-144LL with engines from the machine-160.

Unmanned:

  • X-51
  • X-43.

Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane
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upstairs