The aircraft with vertical takeoff
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The aircraft with vertical takeoff. Vertical take-off and landing. Video.

Airplane with a vertical take-off.

Vertical take-off aircraft appeared when the era of jet aircraft began, it was the second half of the fifties. Initially they were called turbo-guns. At that time, designers began to develop devices that are able to rise into the air with minimal or no run-up. Such devices do not require a special runway, for them a sufficiently flat field or a helipad.

Besides humanity while crept close to space exploration. The development of spacecraft that can sit down and take off to other planets. Any development ends with the construction of the prototype, which takes a comprehensive testing to further the creation of serial technique. The first was established in turbolet 1955 year. He looked very strange. On such a machine were no wings or tail. It was established only turbojet directed vertically downward, a small cabin and fuel tanks.

He was raised up by the jet engine jet. Control was performed using gas rudders i.e. jet coming out of the engine, which is deflected by means of the flat plates that are near the nozzle. The first device weighed about 2340 kg and had a craving in 2835 kg.

Vertical take-off and landing

Vertical takeoff and landing photo

The first flights were performed by test pilot Yu. A. Garnaev. Test flights were very unpredictable, because there was a very high probability of overturning, the device did not have great stability. In 1958, the device was demonstrated at an aviation festival in Tushino. The device has passed the entire test program and has accumulated a lot of material for analysis.

The collected material was used to create the first full-fledged Soviet experimental aircraft vertical takeoff. This aircraft was named Yak-36, and went into a series of modified Yak-38. The main destination of the aircraft based steel carriers, and he served as ground attack tasks.

A brief history of the aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing

Due to the development of the technical side of turbojet engines in the 50-ies of the last century, it became possible to create a plane with vertical take-off. A big impetus in the development of VTOL was the active development of jet aircraft in the advanced countries of the world. It should be noted that these devices had a high speed during landing and take-off, respectively, it was necessary to create runways with a long length, respectively, they must have a hard coating. This requires additional cash injections. During military operations, there were very few airfields that could take such aircraft, respectively creating an airplane with vertical takeoff and landing, could solve a lot of problems.

a huge number of options, and prototypes were produced in these years, which was built in one or two copies. In most cases, they suffered another crash during testing, after which the projects covered.

NATO Commission in 1961, the requirements put forward fighter with a vertical take-off and landing, it gave additional impetus to the development of this area of ​​aviation. After this, we planned to create a competition to select the most promising designs. But the competition did not take place, as it became clear that each country has its own advanced versions of the aircraft.

Under the influence of the technical and political problems, NATO Commission changed the concept and put forward new requirements for the machine. Then began the design of multi-purpose vehicles. It was eventually selected only two options. The first is the French aircraft designers' Mirage »III V», it was established 3 machines and German designers VJ-101C, produced 2 instance. After tests 4 device was lost. It was therefore decided to develop a fundamentally new car XFV-12A.

VTOL developments on the territory of the USSR and Russia

The first device of this class in the USSR was the Yak-36, which Yakovlev Design Bureau started to develop since 1960 years. For this was made a training bench. The first flight was made in March 1966 years, vertical separation with the transition to horizontal flight took place in this test, then the car landed in the same vertical. After that, the Yak-38 and more famous Yak-141 was created. In 90-ies started another project with the designation Yak-201.

layout diagram

Depending on the position of the fuselage

  • Vertical.

    • With screws.

    • Reactive.

      • Using thrust directly from the main engine jet type.

      • Coleopter (ring wings).

  • Horizontal layout

    • With screws.

      • Wing-type rotary and screws.

      • Screws are arranged on the end of the wings.

      • Jets screw rejected.

    • Reactive.

      • Drive rotary type.

      • The gas stream from the main engine during takeoff rejected

      • Lifting the engine.

Vertical take-off and landing

In parallel, in England developed a similar aircraft. In 1954, the Harrier vertical take-off aircraft was built. It was equipped with two engines with a weight of 1840 kg. The weight of the aircraft was 3400 kg. The plane was extremely unreliable and crashed. Watch vertical takeoff and landing.

The next step in the development of such devices was the American aircraft, built in 1964 year. The construction coincided with the development of the lunar program.

Despite the fact that breakthroughs in the field of aircraft industry delight us far from every day, there are many new developments in the field of civil aviation. A typical example is the development of a modern passenger airliner with a vertical take-off.

The main features of the aircraft with vertical take-off are first of all that for taking off and landing the aircraft does not require a large space - it only slightly exceeds the dimensions of the aircraft, and hence there is a very interesting conclusion that with the development of airliners with a vertical takeoff system, Will be possible air travel between different regions, even those where there are no airfields. In addition, it is not necessary to make such airliners capacious, because those seats in the amount of 40-50 pieces are enough, which will make air travel as profitable and comfortable.

Vertical take-off video - see above

Nevertheless, vertical takeoff aircraft most likely a little glorified his speed, since even in military planes it is not more than 1100 kilometers per hour, and given that passenger vertical takeoff aircraft will carry a relatively large number of people, then most likely its cruising speed will be about 700 kilometers per hour. However, on the other hand, significantly increase the reliability of air travel, since in case of any emergency situation vertical takeoff aircraft It can easily sit on a small flat area.

Vertical takeoff video

To date, there are a number of concepts for future passenger aircraft with vertical take-off system. Until recently, it seemed incredible, but recent developments in the field of aviation to the contrary, and quite possibly in the next ten years, the first modern aircraft with vertical take-off will carry its passengers.

Disadvantages and advantages of a VTOL

Without exception, all vehicles of this type were created for military needs. Of course, the benefits of such machines for the military are obvious, because the aircraft can be operated in small areas. Aircraft have the ability to hover in the air and at the same time to carry out turns and flying sideways. Comparing with helicopters clear that the greatest advantage is the speed of aircraft that can reach supersonic performance.

Yet VTOL aircraft also have significant drawbacks. First of all, it is the complexity of management, are necessary for this high-class pilots. The special skill of the pilot is required on the transition modes.

It is the complexity of management that poses many tasks for the pilot. When switching from hover mode to horizontal flight, it is possible that it slides sideways, which creates additional problems when holding the device. This mode requires high power, which can lead to engine failure. The disadvantages must be attributed to the small capacity of VTOL, and it uses a huge amount of fuel. During operation, specially prepared sites are needed, which are not destroyed by the gas exhaust from the engines.

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Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane
.
upstairs