Piloting the great circle
Piloting the great circle using the exchange rate systems

Piloting the great circle using the exchange rate systems


Preparing the card for flight on the great circle track. The maps used for flights in civil aviation (1 scale: 1 000 000 and 1: 2 000 000), orthodromy length 1000 - 1200 kilometers is practically a straight line. This makes it possible to lay the cards on the great circle plots graphically (with a ruler), without payment of intermediate points on formulas. On the same path length can be performed with the flight orthodromic roadway around the corner from one reference meridian section.




The recommended laying system orthodromic travel angles on the flight map. If the flight path is not laid on the great circle, t. E. Must pass through certain specified items, it is divided into separate sections, where the great circle length should not exceed 1000-1200 km.


It is desirable that the initial plot point coincided with the turning points of the route (ISP). The division is not the route to the ISP points shall be permitted only at great length of straight sections of track.


Meridian starting points orthodromy area considered the reference meridians for measuring the travel angle. Great circle track angle from the first reference meridian to the first waypoint is measured directly from the reference meridian. Travel angles to the next waypoint is defined as the sum of the first track angle with the angle of the turn track on the first MRP:


For the flight back pad angles of travel performed by the reference meridians, which are finite in flight in the original direction. Therefore, the travel angle reverse direction will differ from the original direction on 180 ° plus correction for convergence of the meridians.


If the entire flight route passes along the Great Circle and has MRP, the laying of the travel angle is greatly simplified. In this case, the route should be divided into sections on the great circle 1000-1 200 km. Meridian initial plot points are considered in the calculation of the reference meridians orthodromic travel angles for the forward and reverse directions; these meridians and measured orthodromic travel angles.


Marking the route for flight travel from the great circle angle is the same as for a flight with magnetic loxodromic travel angles. Line path is divided into segments according 50 km from digitization through 100 km. To the right of each section between the APM feature is applied, over which states racesdistance between PPM and below the line - the set of flight time on the site. To the right is written GTC features.


The general procedure for the preparation of maps for the flight by ortodromicheskon track is recommended as follows:

1. Whether fractures connect a straight line on the map section of the route length 1200 m. Laid on the map will be a straight line portion of the Great Circle. In the future, all calculations should lead the travel angle of the line.

2. Measure on the map protractor azimuth of the great circle on the meridian passing through the starting point of the plot.

3. Get on the map given way line. To do this, connect the straight lines turning points of the route.

4. For each segment of the path specified line to calculate the great circle track angle. This angle for each segment, except the first, is measured and calculated by the Great Circle bearing portion of the first great circle track angle or from any meridian as amended pas convergence of meridians.

5. Record on the map right from the great circle route waypoints corners.

6. The reference meridians each site designated on the map in red.

7. Apply every meridian on the right route to the correction of the toe and the reference meridians and magnetic declination. When flying east amendment record with the sign "minus" when the flight to the west - with the "plus" sign. Recorded amendments to the convergence of the meridians and the reference used in calculating and laying on the card the actual track and the radio bearing, and the amendments are taken into account with its sign.

8. In the event of the need to move from the great circle notation for a flight with magnetic travel angles a table of angles of magnetic travel path into segments such extent that the LPA adjacent segments differ by no more than 3-4a.


flight operations. Flying in great circle track with coursework gyroscopic instruments, including CCP-52, carried out under the following scheme, which remains the same for all ortodromichesknh areas:

1. Prior to the passage of the reference meridian for 20-30 km agree COP. Establish baseline data on the COP, the CPC NOR-50, DAK-DB-5.

2. With the passage of the reference meridian plane set by the settlement VIII great circle course, verify the correctness of the course taken by all redundant foreign exchange instruments.

3. Following a ortodromncheskoy track.

4. Correction giroagregata COP and GIC-52.

5. Monitoring and correcting the path.

6. The yield on the reference meridian pivot point of the route.


If orthodromic path portion has fractures, t. E. Route turning points, these points in the plane to be installed on the corresponding rate GIC, which is the same as the azimuth of the great circle portion counted from a reference meridian.


In accordance with this general scheme and procedure execution method on each flight orthodromic site are as follows:

1. All exchange instruments must be enabled on the ground after the engine start. After heating devices and acceleration gyroscopes rotors installed on the control GIC-52 and COP rounded latitude f initial plot point.

For example, if the latitude of the site's terms 53 ° 32 ', it is necessary to establish the breadth of 54 °.

On DAK-DB set: latitude and longitude of the start point of the site, declination and Greenwich hour angle of the Sun, as well as to reset the trip distance to zero and set the calculated ground speed of the travel corrector.

On the scale of the declination to set the declination of the starting point of great circle area.

2. At the intersection of the meridian section of the reference plane set to the current real exchange rate equal to the predetermined angle Great Circle trip ticket, adjusted for drift angle. Strictly maintaining this course, set GPK-52 per sample, corresponding to the true rate, and the COP switch the mode of operation "GPK".

3. In carrying out flight on a GIC with a settlement rate of repetition, to determine the angle of drift and an amendment to the current exchange rate.

4. To enter the next predetermined track angle turn the plane of the CPC the right or left to the new settlement rate of repetition.

When the flight speed aircraft must begin a turn to exit to the next predetermined track angle to span the MRP according to the pre-calculated line turn anticipation (LUR).

5. By setting the plane of the CPC in the course, equal to the new specified angle Great Circle trip ticket to the amendment to the demolition, to fly with this course of following up to the next turning point, specifying the value of the amendments taken.

6. With the change in latitude cf. place the aircraft at a value equal to the next nearest value of the division on the scale of "breadth", set in the control panels of CPC and the COP-52 new value shiroty1.

7. In carrying out flight on a GIC with a settlement rate of repetition, periodically monitor the testimony of the CPC in the following ways:

a) comparing the magnetic heading of the aircraft magnetic compass with a true great circle course on GPK- in every single moment of the magnetic heading for a magnetic compass should be different from the great circle course on the Code of Civil Procedure for the amount of the corrections for the toe angle of the reference meridian, the meridian of the place of the aircraft and the magnetic declination MS:

For ease of comparison, the testimony of CPC and the magnetic compass is expedient to amend the total install on a scale of declinations VIII, after which the testimony of these devices must be the same within the accuracy of their work. The exchange rate systems that aggregate amendment may be added to the testimony of a magnetic course of CAA t. E. OK = MC + A, the result is compared with the testimony of NL (operating in the "GIC"). In the event of discrepancies in the testimony to make a correction;

b) comparing orotodromicheskogo astrocompass course on a great circle course on the Code of Civil Procedure. In every single moment of these indications should coincide within the accuracy of the devices.

8. Periodically through 10-15lshn flight to determine the drift angle and the data obtained to refine the course route.

9. To ensure the most accurate exit the plane to the start point of the next plot orthodromic dead reckoning and periodically determine the estimated location of the aircraft.

When flying on a great circle GIC rate, measured from the reference meridian great circle area, the calculation of the airplane and the radio bearing gasket on the map must be in the following order:

a) using the ARC or airborne radar to determine the heading angle station or landmark


b) determine the great circle bearing RNT or landmark as the sum of great circle course (OC) of the CPC and the yaw rate (CSD) TEM): ODA = OK + CSD (TEM);

c) for laying a true radio bearing on the map of the meridian RNT or benchmark to determine the true bearing of the aircraft, taking into account the amendment of the toe angle of the reference meridian and meridian great circle area radio station or landmark

b) to establish courses on the scale of the ARC or radar display true heading as the sum of great circle course and removed from the map of the amendments to the convergence of meridians;

c) read the true bearing of the aircraft on the situation of the ARC, or the arrow cross hairs indicator radar.

When used for radio direction-finding system COP-great-circle bearing the aircraft is measured directly on the Status arrow ARC (opposite end), and to obtain the true bearing of the aircraft is taken into account by

its sign Discontinued map correction for the angle of convergence of the meridian and the reference meridian station;

g) Calculate the true bearing of the aircraft lay on the map with a protractor, putting it on the meridian passing through the station.

10. Exit to the starting point of the next great circle area.

11. Set the plane on course Usha controlling the magnetic compass and astronomical. Set GIC per sample, corresponding to the MC during the flight of LPA; and en-loss - the value of the MC + Lm.o.m.

12. In the future, to fly in the same manner as described above in paragraphs. 3-10.


On airplanes with automatic guidance system of the course coordinator NO-50BM included in the VIII COP. Therefore, these aircraft corner of the card on the machine and the set point of the course winds NO-50 trip ticket is set to the great circle reckoning angle and range and lateral deviation is conducted with respect to a given great circle track.


On airplanes with autonomous operation of exchange rate instruments, where automatic exchange NO-50 included in the NL remote magnetic compass reckoning will be the coordinator of the magnetic heading. Since the actual flight will be operated with a constant great circle course and readings magnetic compass will change continuously in the reckoning path toward any mistakes, since the integration path will run along a curve, convex in the direction opposite to the magnetic rhumb line.


In order to ensure that no-50 readings can be used to control the way in the direction of, for example, to measure wind speed and direction at altitude, angle of the map NOR-50 should be set equal to the income statement, and in reading the magnetic compass periodically through 100-150 kilometers enter the total correction:

This total correction in magnetic compass readings entered via VIII declination scale.