The most unusual and unusual aircraft world
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The most unusual and unusual aircraft world

The most unusual and unusual aircraft in the world. Part 1.

All of us have long been accustomed to the aircraft. These appearance. Regardless of whether it is a civil aircraft or military. And we know that all aircraft have two wings, fuselage, fin (tail) and one or more motors.

But, believe me, it was not always. And at the dawn of aviation, and during the world wars, and today there are devices affecting its unusual appearance.

Omitting the time of aircraft in the First World War, we turn to 30-th years of last century.

Two countries, Germany and the Soviet Union strenuously preparing for war. On the military needs spared neither money nor resources. It is not surprising that in these countries there were most unusual projects in aviation. Talented designers managed to make a reality of the most unusual projects.

The most unusual and unusual aircraft world

The designers of not only the USSR and Germany, but also other aviation powers, tested the most unusual airplane patterns. Mostly these were the so-called "tailless", flying wings, devoid of vertical keel. And if such projects in the USSR did not receive further development, in Germany, "tailless" were developed very actively. They got new, already jet engines and were very promising. But, the story, as always, put everything in its place. Weakening under the blows of the Allies machine of German industry, could no longer provide the front even with well-functioning serial machines, not to mention the experimental "raw" aircraft.

Generally, in the USSR, as in Germany, during the regimes reinforced militarization, there were whole galaxy of talented designers, engineers, designers. Two of the country as a magnet to attract promising "techies" for its limitless possibilities. Sometimes, even the most insane and fantastic project got its implementation in a real car in a very short time.

In the USSR in 20-30-ies offered a constructor and implement the most unusual projects. And it could be a venerable, famous people, and young, just out of the institution, but promising designers.

Unfortunately, local military conflicts, and later the Second World War made it impossible for the development of experimental aircraft. Industry was transferred to the mass production of production aircraft. Country was not until the delights and experiences.

In Germany, the situation was somewhat different situation properly. Crazy ideas of the leader of world leadership, and later the realization of inevitable failure 3 Reich, allowed to promote the most daring and imaginative military projects.

We must pay tribute to the German designers, not all of these projects have been stillborn. Many of the innovations first used on the aircraft of the Luftwaffe and later became the norm in aviation

Many of the projects were first developed in Germany, and later used in aircraft of the USSR and the US, which has got all the documentation and prototypes of defeated Germany. On this basis, we conducted further research and development in the field of aviation.

In 35-37 year, in the USSR, the OKB-16 has developed a unique and very special car - DB-LK. Engineer Viktor Belyaev, Professor, Leading Group strength in TsAGI, with a group of talented engineers created an unusual aircraft design. About this machine, and the history of Soviet designer of aircraft construction in the USSR VB Shavrov wrote that it is absolutely original and can not be considered as either a flying wing or tailless.

The most unusual and unfamiliar world aircraft 2

In Germany, the most unusual project, perhaps you can call the intelligence company Blohm und Voss

Continuing the theme of unusual airplanes of the world, dwell on one major conventional aircraft take - is the fuselage. We are all accustomed to that aircraft have a fuselage, it is the body, it is the main part of which is located in the cabin, and to which are attached the wings and tail. Those who are familiar with aviation know that there are airplanes type "frame" that is, having two tail beams.

But the fuselage aircraft with two, known to few.

Again, perhaps the very first, there were German designer again.

In 1939 year, when the invasion plans were developed in the UK, in Germany it began designing heavy gliders Ju.322 and Me.321. They planned landing and art in the British Isles.

Gliders were monstrously huge. Suffice it to note that the glider Ju.322 Mammoth had weighed when empty 26 tons! And I had 12 tonnes payload.

A better Glider Willy Messerschmitt Me.321 giant was still heavier and had a greater payload. It was almost completely cheap wooden glider. And by the way, it opens the nose for access to the cargo bay was first applied. Later, this option downloads heavy cargo aircraft has been used in Russian and American designs.

But such a glider must also lift into the air. Suitable aircraft from the Luftwaffe was not. And then, the famous aviator, industrialist and lucky, Colonel-General Ernst Udet offered to do one of two bombers, clasped their wings. What gave a two-fold increase in capacity, and most importantly the ability to levitate the airframe-heavyweights.

He 111 heavy bombers were chosen for the project. Two aircraft received a central section with another engine. This coupler was named He 111Z (Zwilling-twins). Both pilot cabs were retained. Only in the left cockpit could the pilot manage all the engines and had full equipment and instruments. He also answered for the release and cleaning of the left-hand landing gear, and controlled the radiator flaps of the left-hand engine group. In the right fuselage, the co-pilot answered respectively for the right-hand column and the right-hand engine group. Although he had no gas sectors. In the crew of the Siamese twins there were two more air mechanics, two gunners and one radio operator. Second, the right pilot was also acting as navigator. Such was the distribution of duties in an unusual plane.

He 111Z (Zwilling-twins)

Unusual aircraft had good performance was unpretentious and participated in the fighting on the Eastern Front.

To accompany the heavy bombers, the US Air Force B-29 require further fighters. To participate in the raids on Japan, it was not suitable escort aircraft. Here the Americans resorted to Luftwaffe experience. They took the most massive and the most, perhaps, a good plane P-51 «Mustang" and joined his general secondary wing, and the total stabilizer. So there was an unusual North American F-82 Twin Mustang.

On 6 July 1945, when the first prototype XF-82 took off, the war was already over, but nevertheless the Twin was used as a night fighter. It was also used in its main quality long-range escort fighter.

XF-82

But two of the aircraft managed to connect not only wings, designer guessed from the two planes make a kind of a hitch when one aircraft is sitting "up" on the other. And not one, not only riding, but also under the wings.

That was a development engineer VS Vahmistrova. The aircraft-carrier, aviamatka, air link, such names were unusual project, which is officially called the "Link-STD" or composite dive bomber.

The well tested in local conflicts bomber designer Tupolev TB-3 fastened one to 4-5 fighters. This enabled an increase in the radius of action fighter. And fighters could carry heavy bomb, which could not fly themselves. On the approach to the target fighters disengaged from aviamatki stormed dive purpose, and returned under their own power to their base. Aircraft have been suspended under the wings and fuselage, another couple was on the wing.

TB-3

In tests this unusual aircraft carrier, I was going to test the entire staff of the Institute, the spectacle called "Vahmistrova Circus".

But the "circus" had the opportunity to demonstrate its capacity and in the combat of WWII. July 26 1941, the compound bombed oil storage unit in Ploiesti. there were no casualties. A 10 August "Link-SPB" wiped his nose and the rest of the skeptics, especially assault and bomber regiments.

Charles Bridge across the Danube 1 heavily guarded and enemy fighters and anti-aircraft guns. In addition to the regular supply of equipment and troops across the bridge and took a pipeline from Constanta in Ploiesti.

Red Army Air Force repeatedly attempted bombing of a bridge. But all were unsuccessful. And 10 August zvenev- "circus" triple rose into the air. One link of the broken back to the base, the pair remains safely released the fighter-bombers. They dive from a height of 1800 meters successfully attacked the bridge, and returned home unscathed. 13 August, they repeated the circus badly damaged bridge.

In July 43 years, from the German airport aircraft flew incomprehensible. As the contours of it was the bomber Ju 88 A4, on which sat "clinging" to his fighter Bf 109F-4. It was the rise of the prototype aircraft system Mistel ( «Mistletoe"). The troops nicknamed "Father and Son".

The bomber was altered under extra heavy bomb. Why, instead of glass cockpit was raised long cone detonator, which was located behind the explosive (1725 kg.). The plane took off on all engines, after the climb, turn off your engine fighter. When approaching the target, the engine "Messer" and re-run it is disengaged from the bomb, which a gentle planning flew to the target.

FW 190A-8 (F-8)

The picture shows a training version of "Mistel". On Ju 88 left cockpit for testing the interaction of pilots and disengaging fighter. In this case FW 190A-8 (F-8). Training "Mistel" was captured by the allies.

On the "role" of the bomb and the media to try and other aircraft.

Plans for the Luftwaffe to bomb Soviet power plants and other strategic objects were disrupted rapidly advancing Soviet troops.

In the UK, even 1938 year has already been approved similar coupling of two planes. They were two flying boats. Heavy Maia 4 boat engines, bore the lighter float plane the Mercury, too, with four engines. The test pilot was firm "Junkers" Siegfried Goltsbauer who subsequently proposed a variant of the tow aircraft to the Ministry of Aviation in Germany.

Postal transatlantic hitch. UK 1938god.

Postal transatlantic hitch. UK 1938god.

VM-T Atlant

And this is VM-T Atlant, developed by Myasishchevsky design bureau in the middle of the 80-s. This aircraft was the forerunner of the Mriya for the transportation of the Buran.

An-225 "Mriya" and "Buran".

An-225 "Mriya" and "Buran".

That's not all unusual aircraft in the world. In the world of aviation rather unusual projects that will interest all lovers of art and aviation.

In the USSR, there was never a lack of talented designers and inventors. Design, and embodied in the construction of the most unexpected solutions, the most daring and promising ideas.

Almost every KB, designs planes, had its own initiative group of young enthusiasts, which offered unexpected design and custom design solutions.

The ship layout, the ship-monster

The ship layout, the ship-monster

June 22 1966 year, the stocks of shipyard "Volga", was launched unprecedented for that time unit. It was not clear what it is. Whether a ship with wings, or a plane with the body of the boat. Huge, long about 90 meters, the machine had an unprecedented weight in 544 tons. The machine had the designation "KM", the ship layout. But abroad, and our aviation circles was immediately christened "Caspian monster" for awesome unusual appearance.

The machine was unique in its versatility. She could take off like an airplane, could swim like a ship, or, thanks to its special wings to fly over the water at a speed of 500 km \ hour.

The tests were long and hard. Interagency confusion brings chaos to the work of KB. The fact that a long time could not decide which type to carry it. According to the documentation, it was held as a war vessel, and belonged to the Soviet Navy. While experiencing its Air Force pilots.

Tests continued 15 years, on an ad hoc basis under the city of Kaspiysk. Raw, nedovedennye engines constantly disrupted test charts. On the CM established 10 TRD HP-7, 13000 thrust of kgs. They provide speeds of up to 500 km \ hour with a load of more than 300 tons!

The first test flight was conducted pilots of VF Loginov, and Chief Designer RE Alekseev.

Unfortunately, in the year 1980, the only instance of CM, crashed due to piloting error. For a long time he remained afloat. But the attempt to save the car was not there. Either there was no means to do so, whether on the project given up. To the delight of the NATO military bloc, the second copy was never built. In 90-ies because of the chaos in the country, about the storm seas and aircraft carriers and all was forgotten.

But as they say: the new is well forgotten old

And in recent years, the media have been reports of the resumption of work on the KM project. Already created a reduced layout, and is preparing a full-size 500-ton. The plans of the Defense Ministry and Navy to equip combat WIG type KM and "Lun" internal Russian fleet to 2020 year.

VVA-14. Amphibian vertical takeoff. 4545

VVA-14. Amphibian vertical takeoff.

Another unique device, a unique person and designer Robert Bartini.

The Italian noble origin, Robert Bartini, at an early age became interested in the Marxist movement. After moving to Soviet Russia in 30-ies, he enthusiastically engaged in designing schemes unusual aircraft.

Vertical soaring aerodynamic ground VVA-14 was the culmination of design thought of the designer.

It was planned that the aircraft will be universal. Able to take off with water and a hard surface. And take off in normal mode, or vertically.

In 1976 year at Taganrog I tested the final version of the BBA. Due nedovedennosti engine VTOL, amphibious converted by aerodynamic ground, able to fly in the airplane mode and WIG.

unusual aircraft

Even after the death of the designer, tried to bring the car, but the interest of the military it was gone, motors for vertical take-off and have not appeared and the project was closed.

On the photo from the museum in Monino, in the headline, the remains of unique designs seen, without the wings and engines.

Valery Smirnov specifically for Avia.pro

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