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The quality management system of aviation equipment

The quality management system of aviation equipment

One of the important areas of aviation activities related to the quality management of aircraft. It is an effort to introduce companies, along with aviation regulations, standards ISO 9000. Implementation of these standards contributes to the improvement of the internal organization of production and manufacturing processes, maintenance and restoration of the AT. This has a positive effect on the safety of the sun and on the performance of financial and economic activity of the enterprise.

The heterogeneity of the objects of regulation in the field of aviation makes it necessary to adapt the provisions of ISO series 9000 and related state standards to the characteristics of these objects, as well as the principles of the system of state regulation of various aviation field - to provisions of the Chicago Convention and SARPs.

General methodological principles of the system of quality production and service requirements set forth in AT ISO 9001: 2001, Aviation Regulations Interstate Aviation Committee and the European "Procedures for certification of aircraft and other aeronautical products and parts." The relevant sections are devoted to the practical aspects of the implementation of the process approach to quality management of the AT. The control system directs and controls the activities of the organization in terms of quality (DSTU ISO 9000: 2001).

Quality Management System (QMS) should be documented and organized so as to ensure compliance with the requirements approved type design of the sample, and a state of AT AT instance, which ensures its safe operation.

Quality control activities regulated by the quality manual, procedures, standards, organizational and technical documents of the enterprise, which contain:

  • enterprise policy in the field of quality; an organizational chart of the QMS; segregation of duties, powers and responsibilities vested in officials, offices and departments of the enterprise with respect to quality management;
  • management methods of design documentation and ensure compliance with AT type design;
  • procedure, technical documentation development and ensure its production, including special responsibility and special processes;
  • methods to ensure the stability and control of special processes;
  • principles of metrological maintenance of manufacture, inspection and testing of AT;
  • methods of control and testing of components and AT as a whole, and in the production of sun - procedures and flight test program;
  • list of applied types of non-destructive testing methods and procedures for these controls;
  • principles to ensure the quality of materials, semi-finished products and components, procedures and methods of controlling the input received products;
  • list of test units, indicating their purpose and location;
  • modes of action with the products, which does not meet the requirements;
  • methods of safeguarding the quality of products during loading and unloading
  • work, transport, storage, preservation, packaging and storage of goods;
  • procedures for determining fitness for operation made copies of AT, and for sun - definition of airworthiness;
  • methods of keeping records of the results of controls and procedures for the identification of products and ensure that it is traceable;
  • collection and handling of information on product failure of AT identified during their operation or repair; corrective actions to address these failures and their causes;
  • methods of training and certification of personnel; procedures for internal audits of QMS; order and the right to make changes to documents QMS;
  • list of leaders of the organization authorized to sign documents testifying to the appropriate instance of the AT type design and its suitability for use.

Normative base Quality Management System AT includes legislative acts, documents, entered into force CAA (aviation regulations, airworthiness directives and other policy and regulatory documents), government regulations (DSTU, GOST, OST), industrial manufacturing instructions, guiding technological materials, specifications and other.

The development and implementation of QMS AT take into account the requirements of these standards:

  • international - in the field of quality management ISO of a series 9000;
  • Unified system for design documentation (ESKD);
  • Unified system of technological documentation (ESTD);
  • interstate - supply systems for the production of products;
  • a unified system of technological preparation of production (ESTPP);
  • measurement traceability system (ICG); general engineering;
  • organizational and methodical government of Ukraine;
  • organizational and methodological branch of the former USSR;
  • organizational and methodical branch of Ukraine.

In the manufacture of export products to the manufacturer AT must also take into account the requirements of national standards, the consumer country.

The novelty of the approach to the creation of QMS meeting the requirements of ISO 9001: 2001, is the orientation of the management of the company to meet customer requirements for product quality, the use of a process approach to the management of activities related to quality assurance of products, creating conditions for the continuous improvement of products and the improvement of the QMS with taking into account the results of regular monitoring of product quality, customer satisfaction and products available to it the effectiveness of QMS processes.

The trend towards the recognition and wide use of ISO standards for the 9000 series in various industries is typical for aviation enterprises. This is confirmed by the implementation of the International Aerospace Quality Standard IAQS 9100 "Quality System - Aerospace Industry - Quality Assurance Model for Design, Development, Production, Installation and Maintenance". This standard contains the requirements of ISO 9001 and additional requirements for QMS in the aerospace industry. To ensure the management of individual processes, as well as to analyze and evaluate their performance, the enterprise objectives are decomposed according to the main quality management processes. For its implementation, it is recommended to build a target tree [291]. Setting the objectives of the enterprise, it is necessary to determine the criteria for their achievement, which are used in monitoring the effectiveness of the QMS and the development of measures to improve it.

Ensuring the effectiveness and efficiency of quality management provides a precise definition of numerous linked activities of the enterprise - related processes to ensure product quality, and management. Under the process is defined as any activity provided resources and management, enabling conversion of the input streams on the weekend.

The identification of each process, the definition of the relationship and the establishment of rules for the interaction of processes, as well as the dependence of the output streams of each process on its input streams, are considered as a process approach. Input and output streams of processes can be products, services, information, etc. Often the output streams of one process can directly be the input streams of the next process implemented within the enterprise. This allows us to organize interaction between the "owners" on the principles of "supplier-consumer" relations that determine the implementation of the process, which contributes to increasing the effectiveness, controllability and controllability of these processes.

The implementation of the process approach involves determining:

  • the necessary quality management processes and their identification;
  • objectives of each process; order fulfillment processes, their relationships and interactions;
  • sequence of actions within each process; methods to ensure their effectiveness and management;
  • inputs and outputs of each process;
  • criteria for achieving the objectives and effectiveness of processes;
  • Responsibility for the implementation process;
  • the necessary resource provision processes;
  • monitoring processes and their effectiveness.

Quality management processes are described in the documentation of the quality system (SK) As a general rule, descriptions are given in the quality manual, as well as the standards of the enterprise or other document management system. The Quality Manual is recommended to describe the processes of the upper levels of management. The rest of the management processes it is expedient to describe the standards of the enterprise.

Quality Manual, as a fundamental document describes the QMS as a whole, contains information about the network quality management processes and their interaction with reference to enterprise standards and other documents, and also provides certified QMS. Network management processes described by their matrix, structural logic and functional model.

In accordance with Article 5 «Air Code of Ukraine", activities related to the development, production, repair and maintenance of AT in Ukraine subject to mandatory certification.

Certification of the quality management system under the ISO standards series 9000 considered as a set of procedures and methods of valuation, validation and verification of conformity of quality characteristics of products that may be carried out at various stages of its life cycle. With regard to the specific product (or its specific form), within a particular certification system and used her certification schemes, certification QMS and its approval should be considered on the basis of the following:

  • QMS Certification serves as an independent certification scheme or as a possible component of the applicable certification schemes, ie. e. is one of the possible approaches, or a means to achieve the desired product quality and ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of state regulation of quality;

  • QMS certification (as an independent certification scheme or as a possible component of the applied schemes) has a specific set of conditions for the applicability, in which it is characterized by efficiency and a corresponding level of efficiency compared with other alternatives to it certification schemes.

Therefore, certification QMS - a necessary but insufficient condition for ensuring the quality of products which can not be considered absolute and (or) the only guarantee of its quality.

Matrix quality management processes establishes the relationship of processes and defines the necessary inputs and outputs.

The advantage of such a description is a clear and compact overview of quality control processes and their relationships, lack of - the inability to establish a sequence of processes, criteria and methods for assessing their performance and handling, as well as the resources needed to ensure the processes and the steps within each process.

Matrix quality management processes built to create the UK a relatively small enterprise producing structurally uniform, simple products, as well as to describe the individual elements of the UK.

Network quality management processes and their relationship can be represented in the form of structural and logic control processes that shows their hierarchical structure and relationship.

The circuit consists of the top, displaying the composition and decomposition of subsystems QMF each subsystem logically interrelated management processes (functions). These processes may be located on the circuit or in the order of their performance, or as indicating the composition of a particular process control and the quality of its constituent under processes.

The advantage of this kind of description - a clear and compact display network quality management processes, their interrelationships and interactions. The disadvantage is that this kind of description does not provide a clear definition of inputs and outputs of each process, does not define the criteria of processes, it does not provide information about the necessary resource provision processes and allows you to set the sequence of actions in a separate process.

Structural and logic quality control processes used to describe the network management processes, their relationships and interactions with the functional and administrative system of enterprise management.

Functional modeling of quality management - is to create an image of the real system, ie. E. A model that using graphic language reflects the functions performed by the system and their interaction. A functional model is a structured mapping functions QMF, information and facilities, linking these functions.

The most important feature of this type of modeling is that the basis of the description of a process, not an organizational structure of enterprise management. Process Description provides information about divisions of the enterprise engaged in the implementation of this process, and the extent of their participation.

Graphically, the functional model is a diagram that corresponds to each process block with an input stream (input), output (output), the conditions and mechanisms of the process. The model has a hierarchical view of the system of interconnected diagrams.

The diagram is constructed by decomposition - from large components to smaller ones, simple. The construction begins with the design of the top-level diagram (the parent diagram) for which the input and output streams are installed and the necessary mechanisms and conditions for implementing the functions are identified. The parent diagram is divided into smaller processes by decomposition into smaller processes: "Product Quality Management", "Production Quality Management", etc. For each process, their input and output streams, conditions and mechanisms are defined, but with reference to the ones indicated in the parent diagram. Some output streams of one process can be input streams, conditions, or mechanisms of another.

The third level of decomposition is a detailed description of each of the previous level. For example, the process of "Organization of quality management" includes sub "Analysis of the effective operation of the QMS", "Management of QMS documentation" and others. Thus, the decomposition may be carried out to the desired level of detail.

Functional modeling - the most perfect view of the display network quality management processes, allowing to build models of the current and future situations, all of which are interrelated processes. Changes in one of the processes will automatically lead to changes in all the others.

The advantage of this kind of mapping is the ability to create a structured network of quality control processes relating the management with the necessary degree of detail actions under the control and display environment, information and objects. The disadvantage is the complexity of the design and the perception of functional models at all levels of the enterprise.

The use of this type of mapping to describe the quality management processes is most effective in the modeling of all enterprise management systems, not just the QMS. For enterprises with a functional administrative structure, the combined form of the description is most rational, including the construction of a structural and logical scheme of a network of management processes and a textual description of the organization and the order of implementation of individual processes, for enterprises with a matrix organizational management structure - the matrix of a network of quality management processes, and for enterprises With the project-target management structure - functional modeling of quality management processes.

Consider the formation of the functional responsibilities of the administrative staff. The top management of the company assigns responsible for designing, implementing and ensuring the effective operation of the QMS, gives him adequate powers and determines the composition of the administrative staff responsible for the organization of work within each of the SCC.

Functional responsibilities of staff allocated on the basis of the organizational structure of enterprise management. When functional and administrative control system should seek to ensure that activities for the implementation of each process of quality management has been concentrated in a single structural unit, while the matrix design and target systems - to quality management processes consistent with other processes management.

To ensure the functioning of the entire network management processes clearly define the procedure for their collaboration and develop appropriate communication processes.

General management functions, form a closed loop are planning, including the definition of objectives and actions required to achieve them, the implementation of planned activities, monitoring their performance and goals, as well as the corrective actions in the event of non-compliance results of the target.

Special control functions define management activities in solving individual problems of quality management. The list of functions to be confirmed in the process of developing a network of quality control processes. The special management functions include:

  • study and forecasting of customer requirements, including the potential to product quality;
  • the establishment of quality requirements;
  • plan to improve product quality;
  • organization of product development and production;
  • Organization of technological preparation of production;
  • organization of logistics;
  • management of resources (human, industrial infrastructure, work environment);
  • organization of metrological support; organization of training; organization of technical inspection and testing of products;
  • Organization of monitoring and measuring customer satisfaction, QMS processes and product quality and the effective operation of the QMS;
  • analysis of data on quality and continuous improvement of the effectiveness of QMS;
  • management organization of nonconforming product.

Special control functions - this is just the process of enterprise management. They can drill down on administrative operations, which are:

  • formulation of problems (tasks);
  • setting deadlines for assignments;
  • Formation of the purposes and conditions of solving problems;
  • Definition of standards of time for performance of work;
  • distribution of works by artists; issuing assignments;
  • coaching (consulting) to perform work;
  • establishing technology works; coordination of work between the performers; execution control, decision-making; coordination and approval of decision-making; monitoring of compliance with labor and production discipline;
  • assessment of quality performance of tasks (work, operations);
  • assessment of quality performance by the Executive as a whole;
  • Acceptance of work performed; definition of incentives and penalties; selection of the necessary benchmarks and indicators;
  • Analysis of the initial information; selection of necessary normative-reference, instructional methodology and other technical information;
  • generalize the experience; Development of the document; develop options for solutions;
  • analysis of alternatives;
  • evaluation of alternatives solutions;
  • selection of the best solution;
  • decision-making;
  • carrying out engineering calculations;
  • execution of economic calculations;
  • choice of technology solutions;
  • collection of baseline data;
  • Search documents;
  • compilation of information;
  • registration documents and check their completeness;
  • execution of computing operations; graphic, text design and printing of documents;
  • control of correctness of registration; acquisition of documents; transmission of documents to the customer. The division of responsibilities, authority and responsibility for the operation of the QMS management personnel between the first and second levels of management now displayed in the form of a matrix.

For the linking of administrative operations (works) we recommended to build programs that are the source of information for the distribution of control functions between the departments of the enterprise. Functions divisions in the area of ​​quality management and the order of interaction with other parts of the Regulation on the unit, which is being developed taking into account the existing regulatory and legal requirements, and in accordance with the organizational structure of enterprise management.

In the general case of the Regulation on the unit it is recommended to include the following sections:

  • 1. General provisions;

  • 2. The main goals and objectives of the unit;

  • 3. The internal structure of the unit;

  • 4. The functions of the unit;

  • 5. The interaction units with other departments of the enterprise.

Leader on the basis of the Regulation on unit develops for its immediate subordinates job descriptions that define the functions, powers and responsibilities of the employee in the performance of their duties. One copy of the job description is stored in the personnel department, the second - from the head of the unit, the third - just an employee.

Job Description contains the name and designation of office, place positions within the organizational structure of the company (who manages or is subordinate employee), as well as a list of duties. Manual sets out requirements for the qualification and certification of the employee, the basic functions of the employee, as well as the requirements of its work. It is approved in the prescribed manner and has the date and signature of the employee has read.

Information Management System for Quality Management provides the organization of the development, design, handling, modification and storage of documents related to the activities to ensure product quality. These documents, in particular, include: design documentation for a sample of the AT, technical documentation for production, maintenance or restoration of AT QMS organizational documents, and documents with the registered data on the quality of production and operation of the QMS.

Information Support of quality management at the expense of workflow - the definition of the range of documents that establish the rules of coding documents, development of the concept document, regulating the procedure of development, processing and handling of documents.

Requirements for the development, registration and changes to the design and technical documentation are regulated system standards ESKD and ESTD Handling and storage design and technical documentation are specified in the methods (Company Standards) quality management system, which also describes the treatment system organizational documents.

For reliable information to senior management and managerial staff, whose work is related to the quality assurance of products, the current state of the quality of manufactured products and the functioning of the QMS, developed and put into effect byrelevant documents, organize their registration and circulation. Data on the quality of products are recorded in order to prove compliance with the requirements for it, and in the event of inconsistencies of products - for timely implementation of corrective actions.

Standard DSTU ISO 9001: 2001 regulates the registration of documents relating to:

  • education, training, experience and qualification of personnel;

  • the analysis of product requirements and follow-up actions taken on the results of this analysis;

  • projected requirements for the products; test results and analysis of the conformity of the design characteristics of the product requirements;

  • approval of project documentation; the analysis of changes in project documentation and follow-up, due to these changes;

  • selection and evaluation of suppliers of materials, semi-finished products, components and subsequent relationships with suppliers; product identification; the quality of products provided by the consumer and it is his property;

  • the results of calibration and verification of measuring instruments;

  • conducted internal audits of QMS; conducted inspection and testing of products;

  • revealed inconsistencies and products made in connection with this action;

  • the corrective action taken to eliminate the causes of inconsistencies products and prevent the possibility of their recurrence;

  • preventive action taken to eliminate the causes of the possible occurrence of inconsistencies products.

Documents registered quality data stored within a fixed period under conditions that allow them to find a quick and safety. Set of such documents is the source of information for assessing the quality of AT and instance decision on his admission to the operation.

Organization and procedure of implementation of individual processes of quality management system regulate the relevant standards of the enterprise. These standards generally comprise the following structural elements: title page, "Introduction," "content," "Introduction", "Name", "Scope" "Normative References" "Definitions" "Symbols and abbreviations", " Requirements, "" Applications "and bibliographic data.

The construction, design and presentation of the standard requirements are regulated DSTU 1.5-2003.

The structural element "Requirements" describes the requirements of the standard to the organization, procedure and methods of controlindividual processes of the QMS. In general, it includes subsections "General Provisions", "Object Management", "objectives and criteria to achieve the goals", "Input and Output Process Management", "Organization of process control", "Methods and action of a process", "Date Information, "" monitoring the effective operation of the process "and" corrective action. "

Depending on the characteristics of the regulated process and documentation of the company's QMS standards can contain additional sections.

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