Types of aircraft, their purpose and the requirements for them
Types of aircraft, their purpose and the requirements for them

Types of aviation, their purpose and requirements for them



Reconnaissance aircraft for reconnaissance range falls into near and far, and on the organizational affiliation - by the army and a military.

Distant (army) intelligence aircraft It caters to large units of land and sea forces.

Near (Branch) the nature of their work in the most re associated with higher tactical formation. She enters or organization in their composition (Aviation Branch), or betrayed them for a certain time depending on the needs.


Reconnaissance aircraft is the primary means of operational and a means of tactical reconnaissance.


fighter aircraft 4 divided into subgroups:

  • a) having a multi-seat twin-engine fighter aircraft in service "
  • b) having armed with twin single-engine fighters
  • c) having armed with single twin-engine fighters
  •  d) having a single-engine fighter aircraft in service.


The main purpose fighter aircraft - the destruction of enemy aircraft in the air and on the ground.

Bombers 1

bombers divided:

  • a) in a fighting its application to the near - to solve their problems in the interest of the fight and the operation army ground troops and front and long - performs independent air operations for the benefit of the high command;
  • b) bombers - on capacity and design-for light, medium and heavy.


By the light bomber planes are mainly single-engined with the flight of up to 5 Ltd. kg bomb load of about 500 kg.

For medium bomber are twin-engine aircraft with the flight of up to 10 t and bomb load (depending on the flight distance) from the 1 2 Ltd. to LLC kg.

For heavy bombers are twin-engine and four-engine aircraft with "gross weight of over 10-minute bomb load (depending on the flight distance) of up to 2 000 4 000 kg.

Bombers 45k3234

In addition to the bombers making bombing from horizontal flight, widely developed dive bombers.

dive-bomber - A special type of aircraft with high demands on his strength, able to withstand the overload those that develop during prolonged dive and exit. For example, during prolonged dive at an angle of more than 45 ° and up to 90 ° speed of the aircraft can be almost twice as much horizontal flight speed, t. E. The horizontal speed of the aircraft order

400-500 km at long dive can reach 800-900 km / h, or 220-250 m / s.

Bombers used bombs of varying destructive power and weight. They act against the troops, field engineering and long-sing-strengthen, train stations and buildings, airports, ships, factories, warehouses of military significance, political, economic and industrial centers of the enemy country, and so on. N.


Possible cases of the interaction of different types of aircraft

The diverse nature of attack targets located both on the battlefield and in different rear zones, requiring different means and methods of attack, poses a variety of tasks for the Air Force, the resolution of which by one type of aviation independently, without the direct or indirect participation of another type of aviation, possibly tojb> ko on rare occasions.

The interaction of different types of aircraft, each of its kind used in accordance with the strengths of its quality and the material of the aircraft.

The most typical case, the interaction of different types of aircraft are:

1) interaction of reconnaissance and fighter aircraft in the area of ​​operation of enemy fighters, when fighter aircraft cover the work of their reconnaissance aircraft;

2) interaction of ground attack and bomber aviation with fighter aviation when it is necessary to gain air supremacy, when the former is responsible for a direct strike against enemy airfields and other air targets, and the latter is responsible for covering them from the enemy's air force and destroying enemy aircraft in the air;

3) the interaction of assault, bomber and fighter aviation in operations against targets located in the operational rear of the enemy, when the direct executor of the task is bombers; assault aviation assists them by destroying ground-based air defense systems and aviation at airfields, while fighter aircraft covers them in the air;

4) the interaction of assault, bomber and fighter aircraft in a combined strike against targets located in the rear of the enemy, when the first two types of aviation bombard objects, and the latter covers its aviation from the air;

5) interaction of all types of aviation with the involvement of reconnaissance army and military aviation, when it is necessary to deliver a massive strike by all means to gain decisive air superiority (supremacy) or achieve the fastest possible effect in the enemy's rear, as well as in its rear during front breakthroughs and enemy airborne forces ...

The reaction can be operational and tactical. At the operational interaction is achieved a number of objectives aimed to achieve the same goal with the actions of the various items and goals. At the tactical coordination efforts are made to solve one problem, but using different methods and means of attack.


The procedure for submission of large groups of the Air Force, consisting of several compounds of different types of aircraft

Military aviation is usually used centrally, while in the hands of the Army, the High Command.

At the disposal of the army command, as a rule, will be part of a light army aviation consisting of legkobombardirovochnyh, assault and fighter formations (units) and reconnaissance units. Especially large saturation air units should be expected in the armies intended to shock action.

Direct determination of the forces (needed to perform different kinds of tasks set by the command of the army is on the chief of the Army Air Force, the choice of methods and means of the task given to commanders of air units.


Using Force in conjunction with each other in various kinds of military operations

In the counter operation. In the context of counter operations, possible mainly in the initial period of the war, the opponents will be at a considerable distance from each other. During this period, the army will need perhaps more

full of intelligence and seek to breach of RAM enemy mobility. Hence, the problem of aviation decay-on exploration and military operations by ground and air targets. In this aerial reconnaissance forced to work at a considerable depth, penetrating into the zone covered up enemy fighters, and interacting with its fighter aircraft.

The collision is preceded by the concentration of a certain group of troops that are transported by rail, by road and march. To prevent the concentration of enemy troops, as well as to gain operational superiority (dominance) in the air, ensuring freedom of action, the following are used: 1) bomber and assault aircraft for impact on the routes of troop movements, on aerodromes and other aircraft objects; 2) fighter aircraft to cover the actions of bomber and assault aviation from enemy air forces and for independent actions to destroy enemy aircraft in the air and on the ground.

Bombardment of enemy columns on the march, on ferries and recreational areas, as well as supply and discharge stations will require close interaction bomber, ground-attack and fighter aircraft.


The offensive operation. The main objectives of the offensive Army Air Force are:

  • a) the conquest of operational or tactical air superiority;

  • b) reconnaissance of railways and unpaved tracks leading to the front of the army to detect the approach of reinforcements;

  • c) performing aviation preparation for breaking through the defensive zone;

  • d) facilitating the introduction of mobile groups into the breakthrough;

  • e) obstructing the approach of reinforcements and the supply of supplies;

  • f) disorganization of the enemy's rear and control;

  • g) the destruction of its reserves and technical means of struggle;

  • h) the fight against airborne troops;

  • i) fighting against enemy units and cavalry raiding in their rear.


All these tasks require interaction mainly intelligence, bomber, fighter and attack aircraft.


In a defensive operation. In a defensive operation, army command, as a rule, will have more Force limitation than coming. In part they are usually included fighter aircraft and assault the compound, and, if possible, and legkobombardirovochnye.


Aviation Cooperation in this operation will take place:

  • a) while covering their reconnaissance aircraft with fighter aviation, conducting reconnaissance, observation of the battlefield and control of artillery fire;

  • b) during joint attacks by light bomber, assault, fighter, and sometimes reconnaissance aircraft on enemy airfields to gain tactical air supremacy;

  • c) during joint actions against an enemy that has broken through the front, or during the landing of enemy airborne assault forces in the rear of the troops.


Methods and goals of interaction of various types of aircraft

Interaction with providing the Air Force actions

Ensuring that the work w other type of aircraft to counter enemy aircraft can be built based on its own software ( "self"). In this case, the aircraft rely only on their own weapons, speed and suddenness, and concerted action both crew and aircraft group. The scouts, bombers and others. May be combined in a fairly large group fighting. Supporting each other with fire, leading a defensive battle with enemy fighters, these aircraft, going in a group, perform their direct functions.

Self-sufficiency can be achieved and the application of this type of aircraft or aircraft maintenance data connection. This aircraft of the same type, but with a smaller load, and with a large supply of ammunition and ammunition for machine guns and cannons (if any). On the software aircraft tasked with tracking (cover) of the planes coming in less maneuverable, larger build.

Aircraft maintenance is bordered by protected and reflect the attack.

Most operations require special maintenance aircraft, single, double and multi-fighters. That software may be:

  • 1. Fighting enemy fighter aircraft in a given area (more or less extensive) to seize temporary tactical air supremacy (in the interests of one or another air or ground operation); this (temporary) air supremacy is achieved by expelling enemy fighter aircraft (by patrolling, "ambushes" in the air and on the ground, etc.) and destroying them.

  • 2. Simultaneous strike on enemy fighter aircraft, taking off in the neck or ready to take off to counter our bomber, assault or reconnaissance aircraft (in the area of ​​the bombing, reconnaissance object or directly above it), and the strike on the fighters is delivered either simultaneously with the attack of the bombers, or before him (preemptive actions - lure and attack or attack on airfields).

  • 3. Direct escort of aircraft by fighters.

  • 4. Neutralization of enemy aircraft by the required moment by bombarding the airfield of airfields and stopping flights from them, or simultaneously with bombarding the airfield and destroying the material part of the enemy's air force. This method, in combination with others, will be one of the most decisive, provided that the air situation and the actions of the enemy's air force (surveillance, surveillance) are taken into account and known.


Military aviation


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