Air carrier
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Air carrier

Air carrier

The aircraft, which bears the aviagruppirovku called air aircraft carrier aviamatkoy or flying aircraft carrier. Such machines at one time were considered quite promising projects, at least until the aircraft refuellers. At the moment, the revival of this idea is quite possible, since they could be used as a first suborbital ships of the type of Space Ship One, or as a base for unmanned drones.

History of creation

In history, there have been many attempts to design such projects, but the first real intentions arose after the appearance of Zeppelins, which due to their impressive size could well serve as a home for small planes. Then the first experiments on design began and lasted until 30-ies and the death of "Hindenburg." Several such projects were realized. The airborne aircraft carrier ascended to the sky, and the biplane dropped down with a special crane from an open hatch that was in full swing of the airship. Then he uncoupled and flew on his own. Landing was carried out as follows: the biplane equaled the speed with the airship, cling to the crane hook and was pulled into the hatchway.

When the idea of ​​military use of airships was abandoned, the designers began to consider the idea of ​​using heavy aircraft-bombers as a carrier. It was planned to place the fighters instead of the bomb load. Immediately there was a problem of the ratio of the size of bombers and fighters. As a solution, the idea was applied with the construction of ultra-small fighters, the so-called parasites. For this purpose, several dozens of variants of such fighters were built, among which it was planned to find the optimal one. Perhaps, the idea would have been realized, but at that time airplanes-tankers appeared, which proved their high efficiency in the conducted combat operations. Thus there was a basic idea with the creation of long-range fighters, which will be able to refuel directly in the air. But still, thanks to flying aircraft carriers, the concept of unmanned jet aircraft appeared in aviation - cruise missiles, which, in fact, represent those small fighters, but in this case kamikaze planes.

The period of the First World War

German airships have badly damaged all of Europe's aviation. Therefore, to effectively counteract in Britain, a composite airplane, Porte Baby, was designed, which was specially upgraded to operate it as a carrier, to which the Bristol Scout fighter was attached to the upper wing. Thus, in May 1916, Bristol Scout first took off from the carrier, it was detached at an altitude of 305 m, and then managed to mount the runway on its own. The experiment was recognized as successful, but for unknown reasons the project was closed. In 1917, the Germans decided to strengthen the protection of their Zeppelins by installing the Albatross fighter on the hook.

The interwar period

In December 1918, the US Navy raised its C-1 airship. On its suspension, under the gondola, there was a biplane "Curtiss JN4". The experiment was successful - the plane managed to disengage and continue its independent flight. In the interwar period, American specialists designed and built the two largest aircraft carriers in the history - "Macon" and "Akron." By volume, they were only given up by the "Hindenburg". Both airships were considered distant scouts and carried on board an 4 fighter. But at the first test, the major aircraft carriers crashed and crashed. The reasons for the breakdown were very different, but mostly it concerned the lack of experience with American designers. In the future, however, the Americans planned the construction of yet another major aircraft carrier, but in connection with the outbreak of World War II the project was closed.

During World War II

The outbreak of war in different countries to develop similar projects together. In the early 30-ies the Soviet Union developed the project "Link". Carriers have TB and TB-1-3. By the early forties project to upgrade to the "Link-SPB". He was accepted into service in the Navy, and he was directly involved in World War II.

The first combat sortie "Link-SPB" was made 26 July 41-th year. The task was set to bomb the oil storage in Constanta, with which the SPB completely coped. In August of the same year, the command decided to send Zveno to the bombing of the Karl bridge on the Danube. During the operation, one of the aircraft carriers was damaged, which is why he had to return to the base. The rest continued to go to the goal. The operation was successful, and two days later the air strike was repeated, and the bridge was completely destroyed. In connection with the excellent operations, the admirals repeatedly asked for an increase in the squadron, but they constantly received a refusal, which was motivated by the absence of TB-3 in production.

The first loss of the "Link-SPB" occurred in March 28 41-year, when during a raid on a bridge going across the Dnieper, was hit by one of the fighters. Repeated crashes also ended in losses. Prior year 1942 "Link-SPB" carried 30 sorties.

Draft flying bombs "Yokosuka MHY7 Oka"

The permanent injury and loss of initiative in the Pacific made Japanese engineers to develop new types of weapons. A striking example of this innovation were the winged bomb kamikaze "Yokosuka MHY7 Oka."

It was a fully controlled device that was suspended on a Mitsubishi G4M. After disengaging, the aircraft was piloted by a pilot. He was heading straight for the target, and, approaching close enough, was accelerated with the help of the jet engine "Oka". After that, the pilot guided the rocket directly to the ship, which he intended to destroy. However, such missiles were not maneuverable, so if the ship could be turned, it could safely move on, and the missile was lost. Such units were mostly destroyed in the air by anti-aircraft fire, which resulted in hundreds of senseless pilots deaths.

German project

By BMW at the end of the war we are considering several options of projects of air carriers. The second name - Bomber conveyor speed. There were several options. One missile was planned to use high-speed bomber (load up to 15 tons), which was supposed to separate from the carrier, drop bombs and return to base. In the second it appeared that a carrier paved 5 guided bombs, as well as the "Yokosuka MHY7 Oka."

The firm "Arado" offered a slightly different version. By fastened fighter jet bomber parasites.

During the Cold War

The "Goblin" was created under the program intercontinental bomber Convair B-36. Development was carried out in the period from 46-50-th of the year. The concept was slinging light fighter to heavy bombers. Thus, the entire squadron was to consist of several air carriers, which were fastened on 4 fighter. As a fighter planned to use McDonntll XF-85 Goblin. But the project was never approved, and the program was closed in 1949 year.

Actually designed and created by air carriers:

  1. R33.

  2. USS Akron (ZRS-4).

  3. F9C Sparrowhawk.

  4. USS Macon (ZRS-5).

  5. FICON project.

The project "Link".

Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane
.
upstairs