ZRRK "Tunguska"
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ZRRK "Tunguska"

ZRRK "Tunguska"

With the improvement of aviation at the end of 60's. There is an urgent need to develop new air defense systems. Each of the means of dealing with air objects had its own advantages, but, of course, it could not do without flaws. One of the attempts to develop a universal weapon capable of hitting targets at different heights and at different speeds was the Tunguska missile defense system. Below you will learn about what lies behind this name and what are the prerequisites for its appearance in service.

ZnRK "Tunguska" 232

Gun anti-aircraft gun or rocket?

In the second half of the 20 century, the main means of air defense was a rocket. Its dignity became apparent after an incident in 1960, when a spy plane, which was moving at a previously unattainable height, was destroyed by Soviet air defense. Compared with artillery shells, the speed of the rocket is much greater, and it reaches higher. Its only drawback is the high price, but when it comes to security, this factor goes into the background.

Initially, the 80-x entered into service entered the anti-aircraft complex 2 with 6 "Tunguska". This is a mobile complex, which combined artillery and rocket armament. At that time, this technique had no analogues in the world.

To find out the need for this type of armament, it took a thorough analysis of modern conflicts, which at that time took place beyond the borders of our country.

ZnRK "Tunguska" 3434

Using CPE and the Tunguska concept

The first case of use of SZU occurred in the 1973 year in the Middle East. Then the Soviet officers provided assistance to the Arab countries involved in the military conflict, including Egypt.

ARE tracking stations spotted dozens of Israeli “Phantom” aircraft approaching from the Mediterranean. The main objective of the enemy was to destroy the Egyptian airfields. Thus, the pilots of the Israeli Air Force tried to avoid the likelihood of defeat by Soviet anti-aircraft missiles, capable of destroying aircraft flying at high and medium altitudes. However, they waited for another unpleasant surprise. On rafts pontoons at the confluence of the river into the sea, the Egyptians installed self-propelled anti-aircraft installation "Shilka", which thanks to their high-speed guns hit "Phantoms". These ZSU equipped with its own radar and good automation, which allows you to conduct aimed fire. They were also used by the troops of North Vietnam in repulsing American aggression. It was their heir and became ZSU "Tunguska".

ZnRK "Tunguska" 3434

Since the air defense air defense system was limited to the lower limit of height, and the ZSU - to the upper limit, the USSR decided to combine these 2 types of anti-aircraft means in a single system.

Types, modifications and names

The USSR Army entered the complex in 1982 year. This happened immediately after the production of the first batch of machines at the Ulyanovsk mechanical plant MRP. From the beginning, the project was classified, as can be seen from the discrepancies in the coding, letters and numbers, which are indicated in open sources. Sometimes in the media appears the designation 2C16 (Tunguska). But the correct designation of the system 2C6. Most likely, a typo was made, although there is a possibility that the number "16" is some kind of. Improvement of military equipment is carried out constantly, it is a normal practice throughout the world.

In 1990, a new modification appeared - "Tunguska-M". This is an anti-aircraft gun and missile system, which has been upgraded and received a more sophisticated control system, including the identifier "friend or foe" laser range finder, and the power plant is duplicated by an auxiliary power unit.

After the collapse of the USSR, work on the modernization of the complex continued, despite the difficult times of the 90s. As a result, a new modification - "Tunguska-M1". Data about it became available, as it is aimed at export, namely, to India. Most often used such a designation - 2K22. It is considered factory. Although there is a NATO "name" - "Grison SA-19".

Electronic brain and eyes

By the very name it is clear that armament includes two components - artillery and anti-aircraft missile. These elements are distinguished by an individual guidance system, but they have common radar. They are responsible for the receipt of data on the air situation (working in two bands). Electronic "eyes" are responsible for detecting the target in a circular mode. An escort station is responsible for the sectoral search, and if possible, it is allowed to use optical means.

The new system can not just determine someone else's or your aircraft, but also calculate its membership at a distance of up to eighteen kilometers.

ZnRK "Tunguska" 4343

ZRPK 2C16 (or 2C6) “Tunguska” is capable of tracking enemy air targets using several algorithms (three-coordinate, inertial, two-coordinate angular) using data from external radar posts or its own locator. Built-in on-board digital computer performs all necessary calculations. The transition to a specific method of controlling shooting or escorting takes place automatically, depending on the degree of interference or the level of electronic counteraction. If it is impossible to make automatic calculations, the fire is made in manual mode.

Artillery

SZU "Shilka" (ZSU-23-4) showed high efficiency, but by the end of 70's. its tactical and technical characteristics have ceased to satisfy the Soviet military. First of all, claims were made against insufficient caliber (22mm), which provided a relatively small radius of damage. ZRPK guns are more powerful, 30 mm, and their number has been reduced by half - they became 2. This is the case when less is better but more effective. The firing range was increased from 2,5 to 8 kilometers, and the intensity of fire, despite a smaller number of tables, increased from 3,4 to 5 shots per minute.

Missiles

The main weapon is a two-stage guided missile model 9М311, which had a very interesting device. The first step was solid fuel and was a fiberglass shell, inside which was fuel. The second stage was responsible for hitting the target - it moved like an artillery projectile, having no engine, due to the impulse that was received during acceleration. But it can be controlled by a gas generator located in the tail section. Thanks to optical communication with the control station, the ideal noise immunity was ensured. Guidance on the target takes place in a semi-automatic radio command mode using literal frequencies that are set before the launch with the Tunguska air defense missile system. Its circuitry complex eliminates the possibility of redirecting a rocket or electronic interception. For one hundred percent defeat, a blow to the target is not required; the fuse will scatter the core strike elements in a contactless mode at the desired distance. The composition includes 8 launchers.

ZnRK "Tunguska" 4343

Chassis

Without a reliable, powerful and high-speed chassis with good traffic, it is impossible to ensure the mobility of the air defense system in the front-line zone. In order to eliminate unnecessary costs, it was decided to mount the XRNXXK2 “Tunguska” ZRPK on the undercarriage of the GM-22, which was previously created by the self-propelled Osa plant.

The speed of the car on the highway is 65 km per hour, and over rough terrain or off-road conditions - from 10 to 40 km per hour. 710 hp diesel engine able to provide an angle of elevation up to 35 degrees. Suspensions of track rollers are individual, having a hydropneumatic drive, which is responsible for switching on and adjusting the height of the hull above the ground.

Crew

Splinter and anti-bullet armor of the all-welded hull provides protection for personnel. In the forward part of the machine is the driver's seat, moreover, another 3 person in a mobile turret (radar operator, commander and gunner), are the crew of the Tunguska air defense system. ZPRK responds to changes in the situation for eight seconds, its recharge takes 16 minutes (with the help of a machine based on KAMAZ-43101).

ZnRK "Tunguska" 34343

Such a time frame requires high qualifications and excellent training, achieved by regular training work.

Complex developers

  • Chief Designer ZRPK - Shipunov AG
  • Gun Designer - V.P. Gryazev.
  • Missile Specialist - V.M. Kuznetsov.

ZRPK "Tunguska" is the result of the joint work of many Soviet enterprises. The tracked chassis was manufactured at the tractor plant in Minsk, guidance systems were assembled and debugged at Signal, optics were created at Leningrad LOMO. Many other scientific and production organizations of the USSR participated in the development.

ZnRK "Tunguska" 43545

Artillery weapons developed in Tula, missiles - in Kirov ("Mayak").

The use of ZRPK "Tunguska"

Today, "Tunguska" is considered the most powerful mobile air defense system. But, be that as it may, for the intended purpose ZRPK has not yet been applied. During the period of hostilities in Chechnya, it was used only for drawing fire on ground targets, but for such purposes there are special types of ammunition and equipment. The armor protection of the 2K22 is insufficient for a land war. After 20 1 15 received damage from XNUMX (advantage as a result of RPG shots), the military came to the conclusion that air defense weapons in a guerrilla war were not effective. The only justification for the use of this technology in such conditions is the lack of loss of personnel.

Organizational Structure

The Tunguska-M can be successfully used to destroy such complex targets as low-flying cruise missiles and helicopters. In conditions of dynamic combat, these machines can make decisions independently, starting from the operational situation, but the highest efficiency can be obtained by group use. It was for this purpose that special army command structures were organized.

In each platoon, which consists of 4 ZRPK "Tunguska", the air defense system, equipped with a point of centralized command "Ranzhir", being a commander, forming together with a platoon, armed with the Strela air defense system, a larger military compound - a mobile rocket-artillery anti-aircraft gun. And she, in turn, submits to the regimental or divisional management structure.

Armament Characteristics

Anti-aircraft guns:

  • Projectile initial velocity, m / s - 960
  • The rate of fire of the two machines, shots / min. - from 4000 to 5000
  • Rockets:
  • Warhead weight, kg - 9
  • Average speed, m / s - 600
  • The radius of effective destruction of the warhead, m - 5
  • The guidance system is a semi-automatic radio command with an optical communication line. The guidance system operates at the letter frequencies that have been prepared in advance before the launch of the [20] SAM.
  • 2,6 Starting Engine Run Time from

Parameters of the zone of destruction of air targets, km:

Rockets:

  • Height - up to 3,5
  • In range - from 2,5 to 8
  • For the course parameter — up to 4

Anti-aircraft guns:

  • Height - up to 3
  • In range - from 0,2 to 4
  • According to the exchange rate parameter - up to 2
  • Ground targets hit range - up to 2

Parameters of the ZOC detection and identification zone:

Angle, hail:

  • azimuth - unlimited
  • by elevation - from 18 to 20
  • by distance, km:
  • in amplitude mode - up to 18
  • in AHTS mode - up to 16

Parameters of the SCC tracking area:

Angle, hail:

  • azimuth - unlimited
  • by elevation - from −15 to + 87
  • by distance, km:
  • in amplitude mode - up to 15
  • in AHTS mode - up to 13
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