SAMs Patriot: photos, specifications, video
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SAMs Patriot: photos, specifications, video

SAMs Patriot: photos, specifications, video

"Patriot" (military index - MIM-104 in the English. Patriot, with the English. "Patriot") - the American anti-missile system, which is in service with the US, as well as the armies of the allied countries. This complex is produced by a group of American enterprises led by Raten. It was created from the 1963 year in order to replace the Hock air defense missile system and the Nike Hercules missile defense system as a universal anti-ballistic missile defense for high-and medium-altitude positional troops. In the fall of 1980, contact was made on the production of a serial batch of complexes and missiles, and at the end of 1981, they began to enter the army. In 1982, he entered service.

The official name of the complex is backronym from Phased Array Tracking to Intercept On Target (this complex is associated with tracking radar with a phased antenna array for intercepting a target along the line of sight). For the characteristic type of container installation in the army informally called "garbage truck with hydraulic drive."

The Patriot air defense system consists of a high-performance radar system and an air intercept missile. Today, a modified version of the system, namely the Patriot PAC-3, is used and exported to other countries.

Patriot PAC-3

The price of delivery of nine batteries (four PUs per battery) of the Patriot systems can reach 9 billion dollars (includes: 36 PU Patriot PAC-3 (nine batteries of four PU), 288 Patriot PAC-3, 216 SDM with modified guided GEM-T, ten sets of radar with phased array, ten control stations to capture the target). Starting one rocket costs 3 million.

The history of the development of the "Patriot"

Since 1951, the SAM-A-19 Plato anti-missile project, which is being developed by the mobile system for protecting US troops from medium-range and shorter-range missiles (less than 3 thousand km), was closed in the winter of 1959. As a result, the United States began to look for a substitute that would provide effective protection for field units against the impact of enemy ballistic missiles. In September, 1959 began work on the FABMDS project. The US Army through May 1960 conducted an internal study of the system requirements in order to determine the correct image of the air defense system, as a result, it was determined that a fully mobile air defense / missile defense complex with the ability to simultaneously hit 4 targets with high accuracy (more than 95% probability of hitting into a ballistic missile). By July 1960, the 17 proposals were received from the defense industry in response to the request for proposals for the FABMDS project. In the autumn of the same year, a contact was made to establish a feasibility study (feasibility study) with General Electric, Martin, Hughes, Sylvania Electric and Raytheon. In the period from July to September 1961, the project of the enterprise General Electronics was selected based on the results of the review of the submitted feasibility studies.

FABMDS, creating "General Electronics" was quite heavy and large system. The mobility of the complex was sacrificed in favor of providing protection against a wide range of possible threats, including from ballistic missiles with a range from 90 to 1500 km.

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According to the plan, FABMDS missiles will be equipped with a warhead in nuclear equipment, which, of course, introduced some restrictions on the firing range and the minimum height of the explosion.

In the end, the US Department of Defense decided that the limited capabilities offered for implementation in FABMDS, while using the technologies available at that time, are not able to deliver the high cost and time that would be spent on development. Accordingly, the contract for the development of FABMDS with General Electric was not signed, and the program was officially closed in the fall of 1962. But, despite the fact that the work on the FABMDS project ceased, a program called AADS-70 was immediately launched - in fact, it was a continuation of FABMDS, but according to other designations. It was assumed that the air defense missile system, developed under the AADS-70 program, would complement and in the future replace the Hawk air defense system, which is in service with the US Army.

SAM-D

In the fall of 1964 of the year, Robert McNamara, the US Secretary of Defense, instructed to rename the program for the development of an army air defense system for 1970-s AADS-70 to SAM-D.

In January, 1965 began work on the development of SAM-D SAM. The performance characteristics of the complex were vague and often changed, but they always contained requirements not only about the possibility of protection against the aerodynamic means of an enemy air attack, but also about protection against short-range ballistic missiles.

Raytheon received a contact in 1965 for the preliminary work on the project, in May 1967 of the year it was selected as the general contractor for the creation of SAM-D and appointed as no alternative supplier, and the firing tests of SAM-D prototypes began in the late autumn of 1969. .

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In the 1973 of the year, a technical development began, but in January of the 1974, the technical requirements for the project made significant changes. They ordered to implement the principle of “tracking through a rocket” when the ground radar signal reflected from the target was received by the passive head of a flying anti-aircraft guided missile rather than the radar itself, and transmitted to the ground control station via a noise-resistant channel, and then processed by a high-speed computer and form guidance commands, which will continue to be transferred aboard a guided missile. This principle will significantly simplify and reduce the cost of airborne missile equipment and use powerful means of processing radio-electronic signals in the system. Given this, that such a missile is closer to the target than ground radar, this method significantly improves the ability and accuracy to screen out false targets.

The need to implement the new requirement led to a significant delay in the creation of the air defense system - in January, full-scale development began on 1976, after semi-active guidance through a rocket was demonstrated during testing in 1975. At this time, XMIM-104A was given the name, and in May X-NUMX, the SAM-D was renamed the Patriot.

Patriot

Test ground equipment and missiles SAM "Patriot" continued until the end of 1970-s, its cost amounted to 2,3 billion. Such costs were considered significant and were due to the high complexity of the complex and the desire to upholster higher tactical and technical characteristics. It is believed that to a certain extent they were fully compensated for by the reduction in the cost of maintaining the personnel themselves, as well as maintenance as compared with the Nike Hercules and Advanced Hock anti-aircraft missiles. In total, the program to create a rocket, ranging from contact acquisition and testing to the first launch of an experimental prototype, lasted 35 months. As part of the tests of the initial model of the complex, 62 launches have passed in total. In the fall of 1980, the first contact was issued for the production of the MIM-104A Patriot. In 1981, the first military trials were started, and after three years the Patriot reached initial operational readiness, entering the first unit in the US Army.

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In 2017, the military contingent in Korea adopted the improved Patriot complexes. The installation of the complex and further personnel training was carried out for 8 months.

"Patriot" PAC-1

The development of this modification began in March of the year 1985. In September, the Patriot PAC-1986 anti-aircraft missile system was tested at the White Sands test site at the White Sands range while intercepting the Lance ballistic missile (its range is 1 km, height is 13 km). At the moment of capture, the target flight speed was 8M, the anti-missile speed was 2M. As a result of interception after hitting the combat part of the missile defense system, its steering surfaces were damaged and she left the course. Her remnants fell to the ground in 3 km from the target. The probability of hitting a tactical missile (5 in the absence of interference) - 1-0,3; aircraft - 04-0,8.

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The highest target speed is 2500 meters per second (however, for rocket interception, the speed is no more than 1800 meters per second), the range is up to 100 kilometers, the ballistic one is 25, the reaction time is only 15 seconds, the interval between launches is 3 seconds, the number of targets for simultaneous firing - a maximum of eight.

Early detection radar has sector limits in 90 degrees, then the target is led by the radar illumination and guidance, which corrects the rocket and in the final section it is guided by the on-load tap-changer radar signal reflected from the target (radio correction plus passive guidance). The target height is up to 25 kilometers (the ballistic target is up to 11 km, which leaves little time for interception. After changing positions, the preparation time for the battle is 30 minutes.

"Patriot" PAC-2

SAM Patriot PAC-2

ZRAK was tested in 1987 year. The probability of hitting a tactical missile - 0,3 - 0,4 with one missile (in the absence of interference), the probability of hitting the aircraft - 0,8-0,9. The radius of destruction of ballistic targets - 20 kilometers, height - up to 11 km.

October 30 The Korean Air Force 2018, at the Tacheon test site, conducted routine tests of the US Patriot air defense system, as a result of which the ground-to-air PAC-2 rocket exploded through 4 seconds after launch as a result of deviations from the normal flight program. Fortunately, there are no casualties among military personnel and civilians.

"Patriot" PAC-3

This air defense system was tested in 1997 year and entered service in 2001 year. The probability of hitting a tactical missile with one missile and without interference is 0,6-0,8, the aircraft is 0,8-0,9. The maximum target speed is 1600 meters per second. The height of the destruction of ballistic targets is up to 15 kilometers. Increasing the height of the destruction of ballistic targets was up to 20 kilometers.

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Missile defense mode

The mode needs a special satellite in orbit. Such a satellite must transmit in advance the coordinates of the rocket and the trajectory of its flight to the location of the Patriot.

Composition

  • control point (battery box) AN / MSQ-104;
  • radar multifunctional station (radar) AN / MPQ-65 (comes into service instead of AN / MPQ-53);
  • up to 8 launchers (PU) M901;
  • SAM MIM104 (MIM104C for version PAC-2);
  • power sources AN / MJQ-20;
  • communication facilities of the complex;
  • radio relay stations AN / MCR-137;
  • antenna mast devices (maximum height of a 30,5 meter);
  • auxiliary operational equipment;
  • transport-charging machines (М819 tractor with a crane and М269А1 semi-trailer with 4-I TPK);
  • mobile service center on the M814 chassis with a generator located on the trailer;
  • vehicles for the transportation of small spare parts;
  • tractor M819 with a crane and semi-trailer specifically for large parts;
  • means of tactical and radio masking (as part of a division of 6 batteries).

Design

Targeting a MIM-104 rocket at a target is performed by radio command and control from the ground using the rocket tracking method. A flying missile receives a ground radar signal, reflected from the target and retransmitting it via a one-way communication channel to the command post. Since the rocket in flight is closer to the target than the radar accompanying the target, the signal reflected from the target is used more effectively by the rocket, which provides much greater accuracy and effective counteraction to interference. So, radiating radar guidance works on 2 receiving stations: the receiver of the rocket and the receiver of the radar itself. Then, the data obtained from the missiles themselves and the ground-based radar compares the control computer and makes corrections to the trajectory, directing the missile right on target.

MIM-104B has a fully automated passive pointing missile at the signal source. This can be used to effectively defeat early warning aircraft, directors of ground-based radars and radio interference operating in the radius of the system.

Structure of the complex

Radar station

Patriot Radar

The complex uses universal radars that perform the functions of detecting and tracking targets, and target designation and missile control. He can also receive targets from radar air-based E-3 "Sentry", without using intermediary command posts. Pre-detection radar operates in the 90 ° sector. As a rule, all air defense systems are characterized by a circular view.

AN / MPQ-53

Multifunctional radar has a main transceiver headlamp using when detecting, tracking, and highlighting targets, tracking enemy missiles and transferring commands. This is a lattice with a spatial approach method of powering, which consists of an 5161 radiating component with ferrite phase shifters. In this case, the entire viewed zone is divided into 32 sectors (each by 90 square degrees), while viewing each of them, the radar scans progressively in a beam of the HEADLIGHT. On the scan goes - 3,2 seconds.

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  • 5,5 wavelength range - 6,7 cm (4-6 GHz)
  • Sector overview in search mode:
    • azimuth from + 45 to −45 °
    • by elevation 1 - 73 °
  • Accompanying sector in rocket guidance mode:
    • azimuth from + 55 to −55 °
    • by elevation 1 - 83 °
  • Detection range for ESR targets:
    • 0,1 m² (head of the rocket) 70 km,
    • 0,5 m² (rocket) - 100 km
    • 1,5 m² (fighter) - 130 km
    • 10 m² (bomber) - 180 km
  • simultaneous tracking of up to 125 targets
  • maximum target speed 2200 m / s
  • simultaneous guidance to 6 rockets
  • 8-10 detection time seconds
  • 25 minutes deployment time

The radar is set in the direction of the expected threat, and also maintains such a position during firing. The direction of the antenna in azimuth can be changed remotely, in the intervals between the reflections of the raids: on command from the start of control, by turning the entire radar relative to the semi-trailer.

AN / MPQ-65

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Radar for the PAC-3, has advanced tracking capabilities for enemy ballistic targets.

Missiles

  • MIM-104A - for intercepting aerodynamic purposes.
  • MIM-104B - with the additional function of passive guidance on ground-based radars or jammers.
  • MIM-104C / D / E - designed to intercept ballistic targets.

MIM-104

  • Rocket diameter: 410 mm
  • Missile length: 5310 mm
  • Scope of stabilizers: mm 870
  • Missile weight: 912 kg
  • Missile weight in TPK: kg 1696
  • Warhead Weight: 91 kg
  • Max. flight speed: not more than 1700 m / s missiles 1800 m / s target
    • MIM-104A / B 3 Mach
    • MIM-104C Mach 5 (PAC-2)
  • Firing range
    • Minimum: 3 km
    • maximum ballistic target: 20 km (MIM-104C / D / E)
    • maximum aerodynamic goal: 80 km, maximum 100 from the radar, taking into account the removal of the division and PU.
  • Target hitting height
    • Minimum: 0,06 km
    • Maximum: 24 / 25 km
  • Max. transverse overload: 30 g
  • Flight time: 8,3-17 with
  • Engine running time 11,5 with
  • Thrust over 11 t
  • Number of missiles on PU: 4

Anti missile ERINT

ERINT anti-missile layout

PAC-3 1999 year MSE program

  • Rocket diameter: 254 mm
  • Missile length: 4826 mm
  • Missile weight: 316 kg
  • Warhead weight: kg 24 (kinetic interceptor)
  • Mass of striking tungsten fragment: kg 0,214
  • Height of target: up to 20 km
  • The distance to the target of a ballistic non-maneuvering target / any maneuvering[24]: 20 to / 15 m, may be increased to 45 km from the radar due to the removal of PU from the radar.
  • The number of missiles on the PU: 16 (fit on 4 in the standard cell, designed for one rocket MIM-104)
  • Guidance System: ARGSN mm (Ka) range

Launcher (PU)

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PU allows the anti-aircraft guided missile to be rotated into a container in azimuth within the following limits t + 110 to −110 ° relative to its longitudinal axis. At the same time, the launch angle of the rocket is fixed and amounts to 38 ° from the horizon line.

Chassis complex

Patriot units have a different base chassis, depending on the country. For example, in the United States, it may be represented by autotraction companies from Oshkosh or Kenworth, while in Germany it is Mans, and in the Netherlands, Ginaf.

Test

Most of the firing tests and test launches from the start of the factory test team (1972 year) to the training launches of full-time anti-aircraft missile units after the complex was taken into service (1982 year) and later carried out on the site No. 38 of the Army range White-Sendz (New Mexico). Tests of the military complex of regular military units at the 2 test phase (from II) were carried out simultaneously in Fort Bliss (Texas).

Combat application

Gulf military operations (1991 year)

According to official US data, from 17 January 1991, the American observers registered the launch of operational tactical missiles 81 from a position in southern Iraq through Saudi Arabia and from a position in western Iraq at Israel, most of which were successfully intercepted on approach (they were shot down from the flight trajectory and fell close to the target or were divided into small fragments still in the air) - more 80 percent of the total number of attempts to intercept them over Saudi Accident and more 50 percent of successful interception cases over Israel According to US commanders, in a material published by 9 in December 1991 of the year in the newsletter Inside the Army, written by General Robert Droleta, a representative of the House Committee on Armed Forces Les Espin gave several other data during his speech in the spring of 1991 - 89% and 44%, respectively).

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Patriot complexes were not used for the approaching warheads, whose estimated meeting point with the ground is located outside the coverage of anti-missile defense forces. The Patriot’s assessment of the effectiveness of the use of the Patriot air defense system could have been a mistake, since it was largely based on eyewitness reports after a successful miss or interception — about this the vice-chairman of the Joint Chiefs Staff Committee on Operational Issues, Lieutenant General Thomas Kelly said: it happens quickly and almost impossible for observers on the scene to immediately figure out what's what. It is difficult to say for sure, or even within a few hours after the event, what happened and where it fell. This requires additional time to sort out. In some cases, you probably will not know what went down and where. ” Iraq’s missile forces struck military aviation bases and coalition headquarters in Saudi Arabia and Israel, but many factors, such as the remoteness of targets from launch positions, the imperfection of Iraq’s missile systems, their guidance systems, and the anti-missile defense forces of the coalition forces, caused the combat units of the missiles deviated from a given flight trajectory and fell through industrial zones and residential sectors.

Disputes about the quality and accuracy of interceptions

At the end of the war in the United States began disputes about the effectiveness of the use of the complex "Patriot". Sometimes critics have stated that their goal interception accuracy is as low as 33% in Israel, as 25% in Saudi Arabia. The defenders also talked about high efficiency.

For example, representatives of the US Army published information about 50% interceptions on both Israel and 80% successful interceptions in Saudi Arabia.

In addition, George Budoush, then holding the presidency, announced the 42 "scads", of which 41 was intercepted. Despite the much lower accuracy of the Iraqi versions of the missile, if they supplied their weapons of mass destruction even in a small locality, being disconnected from the course during interception, they could inflict enormous damage (intact warhead, unauthorized missiles).

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According to some experts, despite the shooting in almost ideal conditions (absence of radio interference, false targets, mass start-up of the TBR), the efficiency indicator of the complex was not high - approximately 0,5. In most cases, the interception of the Iraqi TBRs involved only the destruction of its corps, and not of the warhead with an explosive charge, which almost did not reduce the damage in the case of firing at areal targets. Usually, the shelling of targets was carried out by two missiles. Although, given the low intrinsic accuracy of the P-17 missiles, the criterion for attributing the affected missiles to "destroyed" is subjective and, in fact, it is difficult to accurately assess the effectiveness. But later modifications are notable for more advanced software, more guidance and the presence of a new fuze that ensures detonation of the warhead when the target is sufficiently close to the target. In the year of the war with Iraq, 2003 gave different results - all nine launched skids from Iraq were shot down .

The enemy’s aircraft did not falter, since all the batteries were outside Iraq (which does not exclude inadequate mobility, interception and interception efficiency), as well as due to the absolute air superiority achieved by the air forces of the anti-Iraqi coalition countries in the first weeks of the war.

Iraq war (2003 year)

During the Iraqi Freedom military operation, the Patriot batteries were deployed at the Kuwaiti Camp Doha with the goal of the missile defense of the headquarters of the coalition forces. In March 2003, this headquarters was hit hard by Iraq using tactical missiles. All the missiles were successfully intercepted and destroyed with the help of the Patriot anti-attack.

Result friendly fire was conducted twice. Thus, in the spring of 2003, at the Iraqi-Kuveta border, with the help of a Patriot battery, a Tornado fighter-bomber was shot down from the side of Britain. In addition, the F / A-18 aircraft went astray.

Also known is the case of an attack by the F-16 pilot against a coalition of this air defense system, but no destruction or casualties are reported. This incident was recognized by the coalition command, and the interception of the attacking ammunition itself was not carried out. As a result, he fell into one of the elements of air defense. Then the “Harm” type PI was used, which did not hit the target, but a pose in one of the radars revealed damage to it with a fragment, due to which it was necessary to replace the radar.

Syrian Civil War

In the fall of 2014, the Israeli Patriot complex shot down the Su-24 of the Syrian Air Force, which flew into the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel.

In 2016, the UAV flew into the territory of the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel, but the Patriot failed to bring down the UAV, which returned safely.

In the spring of 2017, the UAV was shot down (intercepted), flown into the territory of the Golan Heights by Syria, occupied by Israel.

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To avoid shelling from Syria, at the request of the Turkish government, NATO countries (Germany, USA, Netherlands) deployed Patriot complexes in Turkey as part of the NATO Operation Active Fence, which began in December 2012.

In July, Syria’s UAV 2017, which penetrated deep into Israeli territory approximately 10 km, was successfully shot down by the Patriot system.

In July, the Patriot air defense missile system, 2018, shot down a SU-22 aircraft of the Syrian air force, which flew into Israeli airspace.

Yemen Civil War

In the summer of the 2015, the Patriot missiles intercepted a P-17 ballistic missile, which was released on Saudi Arabia by Hussites. 26 August launched another missile aimed at the territory of Saudi Arabia, but it was intercepted by the twin launch of the Patriots. In the fall, one rocket was able to hit the airfield, and the other fell in the desert.

In the autumn of 2017, a ballistic missile launch was launched at Riad International Airport, which was intercepted by MIM-104 Patriot missiles.

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