S-400 SAM systems "Triumph"
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S-400 SAM systems "Triumph"

S-400 SAM systems "Triumph"

"Triumph" (C-400, initially - С300MPZ, according to NATO and US codification - SA-21 Growler, air defense warning index - 40Р6) - Russian medium-range and long-range anti-aircraft missile system, air defense missile system (anti-aircraft missile system).

The First World War made it possible to verify the effectiveness of bomber aviation for the destruction of the echeloned defense and strategic enemy targets. Then for the first time began to use light biplanes, equipped with machine guns rifle caliber, working on manpower. In order to counter the new threat, the priority was to develop the air defense systems as quickly as possible.

ZRK C-400 "Triumph" 343

The first samples of such products were sparks from machine guns placed on a special gun carriage. For the convenience of fire on the enemy's air targets, the elevation angle was increased. It is thanks to this arrangement of the trunks, these installations began to be called "anti-aircraft".

During the First World War, the use of aviation was rather limited. The real flourishing of this kind of troops occurred in the middle of the 30 of the 20 century. There were medium and heavy bombers, various fighters and attack aircraft.

Flight speed and altitude increased - simple machine gun anti-aircraft guns were not able to reach them. To combat aviation began to use barreled heavy artillery.

ZRK C-400 "Triumph" 343

The first distinguished German engineers. Then, in 1945, Berlin defended 128-mm guns with conveyor-type loaders from the Allied raids, which gave the installation a high rate of fire. But closer to the end of the Second World War, the German Air Force had new fighter jets with jet engines.

The most successful model is Me. 262 "Schwalbe". The device developed a speed that was inaccessible to most aircraft of that time, so the United States, the USSR and other countries based on it began developing their own analogues.

In addition, the USSR received “V-1” and “V-2” as trophies, their design drawings and German specialists who worked on this project. As a result, it was this technology that became the basis of the new C-25 RZK. It was his and took as the basis of defense of Moscow, and then the whole country.

ZRK C-400 "Triumph" shot

To quickly move and cover a larger area at the end of 50. XX century began to lead the development of promising RZK C-75, which was put on a mobile chassis. Responsible for its development was NPO Almaz. To date, the Triumph C-300 and C-400 complexes are in service with the Russian army (we'll talk about the latter in more detail).

The history of the creation of the C-400

The development of NPO Almaz OJSC was fully developed by the C-400 SAM system. This complex is designed to use a variety of conditions: at night or during the day, with electronic warfare and in different climatic zones. First of all, it is aimed at combating missiles of various classes and enemy aircraft. The air defense system is capable of destroying fast targets at a distance of 400 km.

At the end of 80's there was an urgent need for a complex that could hit fast-moving targets to 400 km. Initially, for such purposes it was planned to perform upgrades of outdated C-200 installations, but over time they decided to create a new system. As the basis used complex C-300P. At the request of military customers, the C-400 characteristic was refined during the interim tests.

ZRK C-400 "Triumph" shot 2 photo

The main difference between C-300 and C-400 is the greater coverage area and the ability to use missiles, both on existing weapons and on promising options that can knock down air command posts, strategic aircraft and EW planes at a distance of 400 km.

According to the characteristics, the C-400 missiles demonstrate more than double the efficiency compared to the foreign counterparts, the Patriot and Aster.

Most of the tests of the new missiles for the promising complex were carried out at the Kapustin Yar test site. The main tests took place in the 2001 year, and after five years they completed effective tests of a missile capable of hitting and destroying a ballistic target's warhead.

S-400 SAM systems "Triumph"

At the same test site in 2008, the first C-400 combat shots were checked. The target was moving at a speed of 2,8 km per second, but the complex was able to successfully intercept and destroy it. Upon completion of the test C-400 was adopted for defense.

In 2007, Triumph took up combat duty. The location of the first complex is the city of Elektrostal, located not far from Moscow. Since then, the air defense forces have been expanding annually by one or two regiments equipped with this air defense system. In addition, "Triumph" is located in the Murmansk region.

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Their high range allows you to control the aircraft of the air forces of Norway. Some manufactured C-400 are sent for export.

design Features

C-400 is designed using the most promising and advanced developments, so its characteristics are significantly superior to C-300. Most processes are carried out automatically, without human intervention.

For such purposes, the KP "Triumph" are high-performance computers. Of course, if necessary, operators can take control from the personnel of the division.

ZRS C-400 "Triumph" is located on the wheel-type chassis and highly mobile. It can travel over rough terrain, even through difficult areas. The dimensions of all elements of the complex make it easy to transport it by sea and by air.

S-400 SAM systems "Triumph"

Emit 2 chassis type for SAMs: heavy and light. Their main difference lies in the number of mines intended for launching rockets.

The computers of the “Triumph” air defense missile system are well thought out and can lead many targets simultaneously, regardless of the altitudes and distances they will be from launchers. In this case, the launched missile can be released by the air defense missile system until the moment of its approach to the destruction distance.

Also, the composition of the warheads of missiles includes components that hit an air target with a large number of small elements. As a result, the target has no chance of escaping intact.

Another distinctive feature is the “cold” start. That is, the release of the rocket from the mine is made without the inclusion of the main engine. Initially, the rocket is thrown to the height of 30 m and only then the thrust is launched and the rocket starts to the target. At the same time, inertial control is started.

ZRK C-400 "Triumph" flag

This method of launching the rocket is one of the main differences that the C-400 Triumph has. As for Western counterparts, they fly out of the launcher already with the engine turned on. That is why the Patriot systems often look as if they were set on fire.

Integration of C-400 air defense systems with electronic warfare

Air defense systems are integrated with EW facilities, which are primarily intended for the destruction of navigation systems and the guidance of devices and missiles used to attack the air defense system. Usually, an EW complex, when C-400 determines the type of threat from its radars, receives a command to turn it on.

The Shipovik-AERO complex is used to be called a “drone hacker”, since it can repel an attack on the air defense system of a whole swarm of drones. In practice, EW can be used as an emitter of fake GPS signals and can import satellites, giving the GPS receiver an impression of completely different coordinates, so this complex can not just drown out GPS navigation, but actually control the flight of devices using GPS, offering them fake coordinates . Quite often, the complex turns on near the Kremlin in the role of a defensive system and leads to the effect of "teleportation" of GPS navigators, which are shown by completely different coordinates. For this reason, such cheap devices as a “swarm of drones” built on household GPS navigators can turn into a weapon against the enemy who launched them. However, expensive military GPS-navigators are more resistant to this EW complex, at their frequencies, Dogov-AERO muffles navigation signals without falsifying coordinates.

The systems of the Radar Design Bureau are used to protect the rocket-location systems from anti-radar missiles. When the launch of the missiles is detected, the radar itself will turn off and use a false transmitter located close to the radar with exactly the same radiation characteristics as the main radar, which will lead to the capture of the GOS anti-radar missile. The complex also mimics working systems of air defense systems in the infrared range, which makes it possible to knock down missiles with infrared homing systems.

It is worth noting that some EW facilities that work with integration with the C-400 radar are equivalent in principle to the EW systems of attacking aircraft. If attacking airplanes try to interfere with the air defense radars by means of EW-type sorption-C containers, then the C-400 radar using the integrated radio intelligence system Vega / Orion and its own radar also determines the radar performance of the aircraft and, using the Redukh-4 system, puts them interference. But stationary EW systems have a significant advantage over suspended EW containers for aircraft in terms of the availability of more powerful sources of energy and larger antennas for interfering as well as assisting radio electronic reconnaissance systems, so simple aircraft tend to lose duel with EW ground facilities. In fact, the fight "Rubella-4" takes place with DRLO aircraft.

ZRK C-400 "Triumph" photo loading

Another type of domestic electronic warfare from the KRET concern integrated with C-400 is aimed at blocking communication systems of NATO planes. In the case of stealth aircraft that are forced to operate with the radars off, their connection with an external DRL aircraft is critical. Without a workable communications system for the US Air Force wing as Link-16, the organization of air combat is also questionable, as a critical component of control.

The effectiveness of suppressing radars on American aircraft by means of EW is considered a significant problem by the Pentagon, but the latest tests conducted by the Pentagon showed insufficient effectiveness of protection systems against domestic EW and manufacturer of systems BAE Systems proposed to eliminate these problems for 15 million dollars. Revealed problems of protection against EW touched perfect stealth aircraft like Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. The main vulnerability lies in the fact that Russian radar and electronic warfare aircraft are constantly intellectually rebuilding their work patterns on the air, and the US EW systems can operate exclusively on the basis of these known systems. To solve this problem, the Pentagon has relied on technology for adaptive construction to the Russian EW.

Means of controlling subordinate systems and building layered defense

C-400 can be used as a control system for an air defense positional area, integrating various zonal air defense systems and giving them commands to destroy targets and using missiles from old models of air defense systems to destroy targets. To deploy communications over long distances, the 15I6ME retransmitter is used, which provides the communication of the 98ZH6E control system at a distance of 90 / 60 / 30 kilometers from the command center 30K6X. So, C-400 is a means of organization / control of layered air defense.

It is worth noting that the construction of a layered air defense system around the C-400 positional area is required to repel attempts to destroy the air defense system and objects covered by it through a powerful attack with cruise missiles. Conventional cruise missiles are convenient targets for destruction and can be eliminated by simple air defense systems according to the data provided from C-400 radars, but their simultaneous mass launch is particularly difficult. In addition, the expenditure of ammunition of expensive C-400 missiles on cruise missiles is economically inefficient. Therefore, as the main means of covering the C-400 position area from cruise missiles, integration with several Pantsir-C1 installations is implied. For cheap mass destruction of cruise missiles in the building is located the Pine air defense complex. An additional significant factor in the need to build an echeloned air defense system is that the enemy, using anti-aircraft missiles and electronic reconnaissance equipment, will try to disable the radar and counteract the work of the radar through developed EW facilities. In such conditions, the most reliable and survivable air defense elements are numerous anti-aircraft systems that have a short-range radius, using optical means of targeting anti-aircraft missiles.

The 30K6E control system can be controlled by the following air defense components:

  • Armor-С1 through KP Armor.
  • Thor-M1 through mobile command post Ranzhir-M.
  • C-400 Triumph 98ZH6E;
  • C-300PM2 (via the 83M6-2 control system);
  • C-300MP1 (through the 83M6U control system).

Obtaining a target, as well as controlling radars 96Л6Е / 30K6E, Opponent-GE, Gamma-DE.

Ability to integrate with the 92H6E radar support system with each battery for:

  • Command post of the air force.
  • "Polyana-D4M1" command post.
  • In the availability area (about 40 km) 83М6Е and 83М6Е2, 30К6Е of the control system.
  • "Baikal-E" senior command posts, etc.

It is possible to use the S-200D “Dubna” 400 rocket kilometers and different S-300 radar systems (version P) without the participation of additional monitoring and control centers. It is possible to use C-300 missiles, A-50 / 50U early warning planes targeting and command.

Test

In the summer of 2007, targets were fired at the Kapustin Yar test site. The first target was destroyed at a speed of 2800 km per hour, the second Kaban rocket was discovered, and then shot down at an altitude of 16 km.

18 February The 2011 2 X-NUMX division of the 3-X anti-aircraft missile regiment was used during the test of 400 in February. Then the target was hit at speed on 200 meters per second.

In the summer of 2012, the commander of the air defense forces of the Russian aerospace defense forces, Major General A. Demin, stated that the C-400 long-range missile for ground-to-ground missiles had already been tested and would soon go into service.

In the summer of the year 2013, the C-400 SAMs were tested for the first time as part of a tactical exercise.

Combat application

In the summer of 2007 of the year in the city of Elektrostal of the Moscow Region, the first division, equipped with the Triumph C-400 air defense missile system, entered on duty. In 2009, the second division was also added, which, together with the first, made up the 606 th Guards anti-aircraft missile floor (16 PU).

In winter, the 2016 of the year in Elektrostal formed a new missile regiment C-400, which replaced the 606 th anti-aircraft missile regiment of the 4 th air defense division.

In the autumn of 2015, the representative of the Russian Airborne Troops announced that the air defense system from the Moscow region was transferred by Russian military transport aviation to Syria within 24 hours.

In the spring of 2011, a second regiment took over on duty, equipped with a C-400-210-th Red Banner anti-aircraft missile floor in the settlement of Dmitrov (2 battalions of 8 launchers in each).

In the winter of 2014 of the year, only five C-400 ZRS regiments were formed: in the Moscow region, in the Pacific and Baltic fleets, and also in the Southern Military District. The composition of each has so far belonged the 2 division of the C-400 ZRS and each of the 8 launchers.

In the autumn of 2015, after a Russian plane was shot down by Turkey, the C-400 SAM was installed in Syria at the Russian Hmeimim aviation base in Latakia. The transfer was carried out on military transport aircraft AN-124 "Ruslan", taken on one of the Moscow regiments.

7 April 2017 of the year in Syria were released by the American cruise missiles BGM-109 "Tomahawk" were not hit by the C-400 system. The operation provoked a negative reaction from officials of the Russian Federation. National Interest observers fully agree that C-400 was not used after a missile attack warning from the United States, since both nuclear superpowers were afraid to mistakenly enter a military confrontation.

The second part of reviewers highlight the general problem of low-flying targets. The fact is that without the assistance of an early warning aircraft, such as the A-50, as well as ground air defense systems, not even in relation to the C-400, are not able to strike low-flying military targets outside the radio horizon, which is tens of kilometers, taking into account the use of towers for radar. Special low-altitude detectors can independently create detection zones at ultra-low altitudes at long range, including over-the-horizon radar, balloon radar, remote NVO around the center, air-based NVO (the MiG-31 interceptor from the 80-ies can be used for independent suspension of helicopters) . To cover the area around 2000 km2, protected by C-400, its own zone is enough, but not enough to cover distant objects from C-400 dislocation, unless the rocket is controlled by radar data of the AEW plane, the protection zone from low-flying targets at ultra-low heights is in 10 times more. Opposing a powerful attack, cruise missiles are a regional air defense system with massive use of short-range dispersed short-range radar systems like the Thor and Beech, which, creating multiple air defense zones with a radius of several tens of kilometers against low-flying targets, can block the flight for them in an entire country. Moreover, the mobility of these components, in particular the “Torah” on an armored platform, can fire in motion and does not have GPS coordinates for destruction, makes such an air defense difficult to detect for cruise missiles to strike others. The deployment of such complexes is probably planned in Syria as a response from the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation, according to experts. But the principal technical solution, leveling the value of low-flying cruise missiles, is the already ready integration of C-400 with early warning planes А-50 / 50У in target designation and command mode, where the received warning from the AEW plane shows dispersed air defense systems to disassemble the shelling sectors .

Main characteristics

  • Maximum target speed, km / s - 4,8
  • Detection range, km - 600

The boundaries of the cover zone in range, km:

  • maximum - 400
  • minimum - 2.

ZRK C-400 "Triumph" 43434

The boundaries of the cover zone in height from aerodynamic purposes (km):

  • maximum - up to 30 (40Н6Е rocket) / up to 27 (48Н6ДМ missiles) / up to 35 (9М96М missiles)
  • minimum - 0,005

The boundaries of the cover zone in range from all available ballistic missiles, km

  • maximum - 60
  • minimum - 5.
  • Maximum targets fired at the same time - 80 (10 targets for each air defense missile system, total up to 8 air defense missile system under general control) (up to 2012, 36 (6 air defense missile system for 6 targets))
  • A maximum of missiles aimed at targets - 160 (20 missiles each with an air defense system, up to a total of 8 air defense systems under general control)
  • Ready, minutes - 0,6 from standby / deployed on 3 terrain
  • Continuous Clock - 10 000

Service life, years:

  • components - minimum 20.
  • missiles - 15.

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