ZRK "Thor" parade
SAM "Thor"

SAM "Thor"


"TOR" is an all-weather tactical anti-aircraft missile system designed to cover important military, economic and administrative facilities, the first echelons of ground formations from attacks by cruise and anti-radar missiles, remotely piloted aircrafts, which plan bombs, helicopters and airplanes.


The history of the creation of 9K330 "Thor"

In the winter of 1975, the Council of Ministers issued a decree, which dealt with the development of the first self-propelled air defense system in the USSR - 9K330 "Thor". After the creation of the first models, many years passed, and the family was replenished with various modernized versions of autonomous rocket complexes. But be that as it may, they carried a single task - the protection of strategically important facilities and the provision of protection and escort of moving troops. In addition to the land complexes, the Dagger anti-aircraft missile system was developed, the main purpose of which was to protect warships.

zrk tor

After the decision of the Council of Ministers was adopted, the defense industry of the USSR began active work on the creation of the air defense system. The development of the Tor system was the responsibility of the NIEMI of the Ministry of Radio Industry. The following Soviet enterprises and designers were responsible for the development of various parts of the complex:

  • V.P. Efremov - the main designer who controls the development of the complex.
  • THEM. Drize - responsible for the development of a combat vehicle (Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant).
  • ICB "Torch" was developing a rocket.

In addition, a huge number of radio-electronic and defense enterprises participated in the development process.

SAM "Thor" shot

Since the new global wars suggested a completely different plan than the previous ones, a new air defense system would be needed, which would correspond to the nature of possible military conflicts. The new air defense of the USSR should not just destroy enemy helicopters and airplanes.


The main objectives that should affect the air defense system "Thor":

  • helicopters and airplanes;
  • cruise missiles;
  • various guided bombs and other weapons that the enemy could have.

ZRK "Thor" parade

In order for the characteristics of the new anti-aircraft missile system to meet all the requirements, it was necessary to develop an absolutely new radio-electronic system, which is the way to track a wide range of enemy targets.

Since the task of the mobile complex "Thor" - support of the military units of the army (mainly infantry fighting vehicles and tank platoons), decided to install it on a tracked chassis. Such a measure is also needed as a result of the large weight of the air defense system. In connection with the use of a tracked chassis, I had to abandon the idea to make the complex floating.

Only in 1983, the first Thor anti-aircraft missile system 9K330 appeared. This year, the combat vehicle was sent to a test site. Tests lasted about a year, as a result, it turned out that the tactical and technical characteristics of the complex are not perfect and it was sent for revision. Work on the revision continued for about three years, and only in 1985, the 9K330 air defense system “Thor” was put into service.

SAM "Thor" 434

Despite the fact that the serial production of "Thor" was done at the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant, the nodes for this equipment were supplied by the following companies:

  • platform or tracked chassis - Minsk Tractor Works;
  • guided missiles - Kirovsky Machine-Building Plant;
  • radio-electronic and defense enterprises were responsible for the production of smaller units.

All complexes "Thor" sent to the anti-aircraft shelves. And in each regiment there were four batteries, each of which had four 9K330 “Thor” cars. Initially, the "Torah" was used in conjunction with the control points PU-12M. All the Thor complexes were supposed to ensure the protection of strategic facilities and troops on the march, despite the fact that the Thor air defense missile system could also be controlled from the regiment command post.

LAW "Thor" m2

What is part of the Tor system?

  • guidance station (CH);
  • 9А330 combat vehicle;
  • SOC - target detection station;
  • 9М330 anti-aircraft guided missiles.

The “Thor” air defense missile system is used to detect coherent-pulsed SOC of circular observation, which operates in the centimeter range. A rotating antenna located on the roof of the starter provides the ability to simultaneously view the sector 4 degrees by elevation and width 1,5 degrees in azimuth. An increase in the sector of the review was achieved by using the 8 position of the beam angle of elevation, as a result of which it was possible to overlap the sector width in 32 degrees. The priority of the sector review is determined by the onboard computer program.

In front of the tower of the complex there are a phased antenna array of a coherent pulse radar guidance station. The tasks of this system include tracking the detected target, as well as guiding the guided missiles. Target detection and tracking is provided by a HF antenna. It operates in the 7 sector of degrees in elevation and 3 in width in azimuth. At the same time, target tracking is carried out according to 3 coordinates and launch of 1-2 rockets with their further aiming at the target. Also, the antenna station guidance has a transmitter commands for missiles.

SAM "Thor" launch system

The target detection station and automation associated with it allows you to detect F-15-type airplanes at distances up to 25-27 km and altitudes of 30-6000 meters (the detection probability index is not less than 0,8). For guided bombs and missiles, the detection range is not more than 10-15 kilometers. It is possible to detect helicopters on the ground (up to 6-7 km at a distance) and in the air (up to 12 km).

During combat operation, the reaction time of the complex is 8,7 seconds, when launching a rocket from a short environment and escorting the troops, this figure increases by 2 seconds. It takes about 3 minutes to transfer a combat vehicle from the marching mode to the combat mode and back. Loading missiles into the launcher takes about 18 min. Ammunition loading is carried out using the 9Т231 transport-charging machine.

SAM "Thor" flag

The rocket 9М330 with the speed of 25 meters per second is fired from the launcher using a powder charge. Next vertically launched rocket performs a turn in the direction of the target, makes the launch of the main engine, and then goes in a given direction. To incline the rocket to a pre-set angle (all data is entered into the control system before the launch itself) a gas generator with a set of nozzles is used. The gas engine uses the same drives as the aerodynamic control surfaces. When deviating by 50 degrees from the vertical or 1 a second after the launch, the rocket starts the cruise engine. In the distance, one and a half kilometers from the launcher, the 9М330 reaches speeds of up to 800 meters per second.

Target detection and destruction of the warhead is performed using an active radio explorer. Due to the need to work effectively at a low height, the radio fuse is able to determine the target on the fore side of the underlying surface. Destruction of the target is carried out by numerous fragments of the warhead. The probability of hitting 1 aircraft with a rocket is 0,3-0,77, for helicopters the probability of hitting is 0,5-0,88, and for remotely piloted aircraft this indicator is 0,85-0,955.

SAM "Thor" 434

Thor-M1 is equipped with an 9М331 anti-aircraft missile. The 9М330 and 9М33 rockets differed only in the characteristics of the warhead. The new rocket is equipped with a modified warhead with enhanced characteristics. All other units of 2 missiles were unified. The 2 types of missiles could be used both by the new Tor-М1 anti-aircraft missile systems and by the existing Tor systems. In addition, these missiles were compatible with the Dagger ship complex.


We list the modifications of the Tor system

  • ZK95 "Dagger"
  • 9K331 Thor-M1
  • Tor-M1TA is a type of 9K331 complex with placement on a wheelbase. The aerial launch station is located on the semi-trailer, and the control room is on the Ural-5323 vehicle.
  • Tor-M1B is a towed version of the 9K331 complex. All equipment is on wheeled semi-trailers
  • "Tor-M1TS" - Stationary version of the 9K331 complex
  • "Thor-M1-2U"
  • 9K332 Thor-M2
  • "Tor-M2E" - SAM with a combat vehicle on a tracked chassis. The complex includes: combat vehicle 9A331ME, anti-aircraft missile module 9M334 with 4 anti-aircraft missiles 9M9331
  • “Tor-M2K is an air defense missile system with a combat vehicle on a wheeled chassis. The complex includes: combat vehicle 9А331МК, anti-aircraft missile module 9М334 with 8 anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М9331 guided by 4 channels
  • "Tor-M2DT" - an Arctic modification of an anti-aircraft missile system with a combat vehicle based on a two-link tracked conveyor DT-30
  • "Tor-M2KM" is a modular air defense system for placement on different types of chassis. The structure includes: anti-aircraft missile module 9M334 with 4 anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M9331 and an autonomous combat module 9A331MK-1.


Read more about the latest Tor-M2U and Tor-M2E air defense systems.

Thor-M2U is a further round in the development of Thor anti-aircraft missile systems. These combat vehicles are available on 2 chassis types:

  • on tracked chassis - 9А331М;

  • on a wheeled chassis - 9А331МК.

The target detection system now uses the latest high-precision optical-electronic system. Modern processors can simultaneously track 48 air targets, distributing them to danger. The complex can attack up to four targets simultaneously, using up to eight missiles. Despite the fact that rockets on the Tor-M2 are used the same as on the Tor-M1, thanks to the availability of the latest electronics, engineers were able to increase the range of target destruction.

SAM "Thor" 34343

Today, there is an active replacement of the old-generation Thor systems with the new Thor-M2. In addition, foreign countries are interested in such systems, which actively buy them. Since the “Thor” air defense system of the new generation is a new development in its class, their production will continue for the next several decades.


Technical and tactical characteristics of the Tor system

Affected area:

  • range: from 1 to 16 km
  • in height: from 0,01 to 10 km
  • Reaction time, sec .: 4,8
  • Max. target speed 1000 m / s
  • The number of simultaneously fired targets: 4
  • Maximum missile overload: 30 g
  • Zur flight speed: 1000 m / s
  • Minimum target EPR: 0,05 m²
  • Guidance system: jam-proof radio command
  • Number of target channels: 4 channel
  • The number of missiles on combat vehicles: 16 missiles 9М338К
  • Development Year: 2008
  • Crew: 3 people.
  • Power reserve 500 km


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