Artificial horizon
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Artificial horizon

Artificial horizon

 

Artificial horizon - Is one of the instruments onboard aircraft, which is used to display and determine the slopes, roll, pitch plane. It allows to identify the actual angle of the aircraft relative to a vertical plane. With the help of the artificial horizon pilots performed alignment and stabilization of the machine in the air.

What is Artificial horizon

Artificial horizon allows you to operate with minimum visibility, while the lead aircraft in the horizontal plane. Not all aircraft are equipped with artificial horizon, a small low-speed model designed for visual control.

Classification gyrohorizons

An autonomous artificial horizon is a measuring device made by a single system. Only pneumatic or electrical power is supplied to such a system. Modern devices of this type have a self-contained battery. Nevertheless, the autonomous artificial horizon has a connection with the display system and the hygroscopic sensor; when the power is turned off, such devices can effectively operate in an autonomous mode for several minutes.

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Remote aerial horizon is an electromechanical device that consists of separate systems and units of flight indication. The measuring instrument in such gyro horizons is gyrovertical, and the indicator is the horizon indicator. Very often, the horizon indicator acts as a complex display system that can perform several navigation functions. The established remote aerial horizons are more accurate, since the gyrovertical can be located directly near the center of gravity of the aircraft, respectively, and the readings will be more accurate.

Display gyrohorizons

For the principle of the display, change the flying vessel angles there are two types, namely, a plane view of the earth "FAZ" and the view from the aircraft to the ground "Supreme Military Council".

The direct display system, or VVS, is a more common system, based on which the orientation of the aircraft is set by the background image, it rotates along the roll and pitch of the aircraft. This background image is a line on the border between blue and brown, previously used black and gray. The line itself acts as an artificial horizon. Before the very image of the device, the silhouette of the aircraft is fixedly attached. On the front panel of the artificial horizon, there is a scale on which the angle of inclination of the apparatus is measured. The pitch angle is determined by the intersection of the aircraft silhouette with the moving background scale. Each scale mark corresponds to 10 or 5 degrees of pitch. Such an indication scheme is used on helicopters or low-maneuverable airplanes.

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Contact the artificial horizon display FAZ or displays the angle of pitch and roll as if the aircraft is observed from the ground. The scale and a movable screen of the device to navigate up or down. The bank is determined by the scale of the apparatus, which is applied around the circumference of the body relative to the artificial horizon silhouette of the aircraft.

There are kinetic limitations, because of this, there are “unbreakable” and “knockout” artificial horizons. The process of "knocking out" artificial horizon is due to the coincidence of the axes of rotation of the rotor, the gyroscope with the frame of the suspension. In this case, the gyroscope loses its degree of freedom and orientation in space. Therefore, the design is limited to the angle of rotation of the frame in pitch. A modern device for non-breakability is a gyro-stabilized platform, as well as an inertial system. Yet, artificial horizon systems have angular velocity limitations. 

Other aircraft units

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