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Carriers Russia. Are they needed?

Carriers Russia. Are they needed?

The issue in the title is very, and very controversial. Many copies are broken in defense, as the need for Russia to create its own full-fledged aircraft carriers, as well as in the allegations in their complete uselessness. And now, in general, the topic has arisen about the expediency of maintaining the only heavy Russian aircraft-carrying cruiser TAVKR “Admiral Kuznetsov”!

The aircraft carrier, anyone, never acts alone. For the normal combat operation of such a large and poorly protected ship, you need a whole operational connection of ships of different classes. As a rule, in the carrier strike group includes operational connection of air defense ships, the connection of anti-submarine defense, and anti-ship defense. In addition to the AUG includes all kinds of auxiliary ships. Here and transport vehicles, and tankers. In general, the provision of a simple exit of the AUG to the operational space, for solving any problems, is a very, very expensive pleasure.

With the change of political leadership in the country, as a rule, the military-political doctrine also changes. The view on priorities in the development of one or another component of the armed forces is changing. Often this happens at the expense of the rest of the arms. From our recent history we remember well what such “priorities” can lead to.

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Everyone knows Stalin's love of aviation. And the neglect of Khrushchev, who believed that rocket technology will solve all the problems. Few who know the facts from a closer time. When the bet was made on the aircraft, the Yak-38, which had to solve the whole range of problems inherent in naval aviation. From what followed that "normal, full-length" aircraft carriers we do not need. It also affected the poor knowledge of the leadership of the country of military technology. Backstage intrigues and games of powerful design bureaus, pulling the "blanket" of orders of the Ministry of Defense on themselves, have affected. In Soviet times, everything related to the military-industrial complex was provided with huge financial injections. So why did it still turn out, so that Russia, a powerful country, entered the 21 century without its own aircraft carriers?

"The aircraft carrier is the pen of politics"

This phrase, which is attributed to Bill Clinton, very well reflects the essence of US foreign policy. To be simultaneously in all parts of the world, actively interfering in the policies of different regions, called the "zone of interests of the United States." And the American fleet, cruising around the oceans, actively implement and support the ideas of "freedom and democracy in an American way"

AUG - carrier strike group. The main component of the American Navy. At the moment, 11 AUG are on alert in different parts of the world. The idea of ​​such groups arose in the initial period of the Second World War.

The USSR, having a huge length of land borders, needed first of all to protect them. And all the 4 of the USSR fleet were mainly subordinated to the task of protecting our borders. And aircraft carriers simply were not required. From its coastal airfields it was always possible to raise the required number of aircraft.

However, just before the war, the construction program of the modern ocean fleet provided for laying two aircraft carriers, for the Pacific Fleet and the Northern Fleet. And even there were opportunities in 43 to begin designing in the Leningrad TsKB-17.

But ... Only due to the merit of the commander-in-chief of the Navy N. Kuznetsov, the construction of aircraft carriers was included in the plan of two five-year plans, in the fall of 1946. After almost 10 years (!) They began to design. And in the 1960 year, they came to the conclusion that the naval aviation was unpromising, and all the work was stopped. As a result, the fleet received two Leningrad and Moscow helicopter carriers by the year 69. Which, in turn, in 92, have been successfully melted in Indian metallurgical furnaces.

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The key device on a modern aircraft carrier is a steam ejection device. All US aircraft carriers have a flat deck and 4 steam catapults.

D. Ustinov, who was responsible for the defense industry at the end of 60, believed that it, this very “defense industry”, would not be able to make such high-tech products as a steam catapult.

And thanks to Yakovlev Design Bureau, which showed the vertical take-off and landing miracle-Yak-36 (prototype Yak-38), the country's leadership became infected with the idea of ​​creating aircraft-carrying cruisers. And at the very end of 60, the 1143 project “Krechet”, an aircraft carrying cruiser with a displacement of 40 thousand tons, appeared. The fate of the first three cruisers of this project is sad. "Kiev", "Minsk" and "Novorossiysk", after 15 years of service, were sold to China and South Korea.

Later came the Russian "know-how." Aircraft-carrying cruisers with a starting springboard. A second type of aircraft carrier appeared in the world classification.

TAVKR "Admiral Kuznetsov" - the only thing we have left of the power of the Soviet Union. The second TAVKR, Varyag built on 80% on the stocks of Nikolayev (Ukraine), was bought by China in 2000 to create an “amusement park”. Later it was completed and retrofitted in Chinese shipyards from our own, domestic parts. Now he is in the composition of the Chinese Navy, and is not called "Varyag", but "Liaoning".

There was another project that takes us to the world technical level American shipbuilders. Project 11437 «Eagle". Heavy nuclear aircraft carrier "Ulyanovsk". Displacement 75 thousand tons Able to carry up to 70 Su-27K, Su-25, 141-Yak, Mig-29K. Two catapults and trampoline and arresters. By the end of the year 91 was made one-third of the body. There was a cut on the stocks, and, together with the metal of the second housing project, I went to the smelter.

At the cost of tremendous effort and expense, the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union, Nikolai Kuznetsov, the Fragment of the Empire, was repaired to a more or less floating state and brought to the North Atlantic. His brother, Admiral Gorshkov, now called Vikramaditya, is a member of the Indian Navy.

MiG-29K did not go into mass production. Pilots of deck aircraft, today less than astronauts. The training complex NITKA, for training pilots, has just now returned to us together with the Crimea.

The two only places in the country where aircraft carrier laying is possible are Baltiysky Zavod OJSC in St. Petersburg, and Severny Mashinostroitelny Zavod in Severodvinsk (Vikramaditya is being modernized there). The stocks of these plants allow laying vessels with a displacement of up to 55 thousand tons.

US attack aircraft carriers are capable of carrying a full-fledged air strike force, which has fighters, attack aircraft, EW and DRLO aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft. Search and rescue and transport helicopter group, which includes the submarine combat unit. Steam catapults can "shoot" and aircraft with low thrust-to-hand ratio.

To protect our maritime borders, to protect our interests, the coastal plume, and this is 200 miles, or 370 km., Requires mobile sea groups, including aircraft carriers, escort ships, submarines, and support vessels. Aircraft operating from coastal aerodromes can cover sea connections only on 200-250km. maximum. Ships, submarines that are outside this distance, in fact, remain without air cover.

Having no fleet of aircraft carriers, it becomes a coastal fleet, being under cover of coastal aviation.

Carriers that are part of the world:

1. Attack aircraft carriers, also called strategic (displacement 50-100 thousand tons)

  • 10sht. All nuclear power plant, the United States Navy.

2. Multipurpose (average, displac. 30-50 thousand tons)

  • "Charles de Gaulle" in France.

  • "Liaoning" China.

  • "Admiral Kuznetsov" Russia.

  • "Sao Paulo" in Brazil.

  • "Vakramaditya" India.

3. Light aircraft carriers with a displacement of 10-25 thousand tons. having on board only VTOL aircraft, have: England, Spain, India, Italy, Thailand.

Valery Smirnov specifically for

The USSR, having a huge length of land borders, needed first of all in their defense ...
Does the need to protect the borders somehow depend on whether they are on land or not? And what does "turn" mean in protecting the border? In addition, Russia's land borders are two times LESS than marine, in general ...
Neither further, in the whole article - the author's complete speculation and about the catapults, and about the appointment of aircraft-carrying ships and their aircraft in the USSR, and about "illiterate leadership", and about NITKU, etc. etc. (Only on the life history of aircraft carriers and was in essence). The reasoning of the dilettante with a claim to the instruction of the General Staff about what exactly is "required to protect maritime borders." For information of the author, the designation of Russian aircraft carriers is not at all protection of the "borders", but only protection of the RPKSN in the ZRBD. Hence - and the number of aircraft carrying cruisers, and the composition of the air wing, and the fuel reserve, and the type of launching of aircraft (steam catapult corny freezes), etc. Thoroughly you need to delve into the question!

... As a rule, an airborne strike grouping includes an operational combination of air defense ships, an antisubmarine defense compound, and an anti-ship defense ...
The tasks of air defense and PKO are solved first of all by aircraft of the aircraft carrier itself. PLO can effectively provide only aircraft carrier and support aircraft. The remaining surface ships are just "up to the pile" (and for apl and nuclear aircraft carriers - and the tanker is not needed: auxiliary vessels - for escort destroyers) - for "demonstrating the flag" (intimidation).

Jump is the English know-how. They offered him Amer, they were delighted, but did not alter the ships and the issue nizkoenergovooruzhennyh ups. AWACS and tankers, and so on. And we jump slyamzili. Author: Read about ibly 1970-80-HGG.