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Carriers Russia. Are they needed?

Carriers Russia. Are they needed?


  The issue in the title is very, and very controversial. Many copies are broken in defense, as the need for Russia to create its own full-fledged aircraft carriers, as well as in the allegations in their complete uselessness. And now, in general, the topic has arisen about the expediency of maintaining the only heavy Russian aircraft-carrying cruiser TAVKR “Admiral Kuznetsov”!

  An aircraft carrier, anyone, never acts alone. For the normal combat operation of such a large and weakly protected ship, you need a whole operational connection of ships of different classes. As a rule, an aircraft carrier strike group includes an operational formation of air defense ships, a formation of anti-submarine defense, and anti-ship defense. In addition, the AUG includes all kinds of auxiliary ships. There are support vehicles and refuelers. In general, providing a simple exit of the AUG to the operational space, for solving any problems, is a very, very expensive pleasure.

  With the change of political leadership in the country, as a rule, the military-political doctrine also changes. The view on priorities in the development of one or another component of the armed forces is changing. Often this happens at the expense of the rest of the arms. From our recent history we remember well what such “priorities” can lead to.

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  Everyone knows Stalin's love for aviation. And Khrushchev's disregard for her, who believed that rocketry would solve all problems. Few people know the facts from a closer time. When the stake was made on VTOL aircraft Yak-38, which were supposed to solve the whole range of tasks inherent in naval aviation. From which it followed that we did not need "normal, full-length" aircraft carriers. This was also due to the poor knowledge of the country's leadership in military technology. Affected behind-the-scenes intrigues and games of powerful design bureaus, pulling the "blanket" of orders from the Ministry of Defense on themselves. In Soviet times, everything related to the military-industrial complex was provided with huge financial injections. So why, after all, it turned out that Russia, a powerful country, entered the 21st century without its own aircraft carriers?


"The aircraft carrier is the pen of politics" 


  This phrase, which is attributed to Bill Clinton, very well reflects the essence of US foreign policy. To be simultaneously in all parts of the world, actively interfering in the policies of different regions, called the "zone of interests of the United States." And the American fleet, cruising around the oceans, actively implement and support the ideas of "freedom and democracy in an American way"

  AUG - carrier strike group. The main component of the American Navy. At the moment, 11 AUG are on alert in different parts of the world. The idea of ​​such groups arose in the initial period of the Second World War.

  The USSR, having a huge length of land borders, needed first of all to protect them. And all the 4 of the USSR fleet were mainly subordinated to the task of protecting our borders. And aircraft carriers simply were not required. From its coastal airfields it was always possible to raise the required number of aircraft.

  However, just before the war, the construction program of the modern ocean fleet provided for laying two aircraft carriers, for the Pacific Fleet and the Northern Fleet. And even there were opportunities in 43 to begin designing in the Leningrad TsKB-17.

  But…. Only thanks to the merit of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy N. Kuznetsov, the construction of aircraft carriers was included in the plan of two five-year plans, in the fall of 1946. Almost 10 years later (!) They began to design. And in 1960 they came to the conclusion that naval aviation was unpromising, and all work was curtailed. As a result, the fleet by 69 received two helicopter carriers "Leningrad" and "Moscow". Which, in turn, in 92, were successfully melted in Indian metallurgical furnaces.

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  The key device on a modern aircraft carrier is a steam ejection device. All US aircraft carriers have a flat deck and 4 steam catapults.

  D. Ustinov, who was responsible for the defense industry at the end of 60, believed that it, this very “defense industry”, would not be able to make such high-tech products as a steam catapult.

  And thanks to Yakovlev Design Bureau, which showed the vertical take-off and landing miracle-Yak-36 (prototype Yak-38), the country's leadership became infected with the idea of ​​creating aircraft-carrying cruisers. And at the very end of 60, the 1143 project “Krechet”, an aircraft carrying cruiser with a displacement of 40 thousand tons, appeared. The fate of the first three cruisers of this project is sad. "Kiev", "Minsk" and "Novorossiysk", after 15 years of service, were sold to China and South Korea.

  Later came the Russian "know-how." Aircraft-carrying cruisers with a starting springboard. A second type of aircraft carrier appeared in the world classification.

  TAVKR "Admiral Kuznetsov" - the only thing we have left of the power of the Soviet Union. The second TAVKR, Varyag built on 80% on the stocks of Nikolayev (Ukraine), was bought by China in 2000 to create an “amusement park”. Later it was completed and retrofitted in Chinese shipyards from our own, domestic parts. Now he is in the composition of the Chinese Navy, and is not called "Varyag", but "Liaoning".

There was another project that takes us to the world technical level American shipbuilders. Project 11437 «Eagle". Heavy nuclear aircraft carrier "Ulyanovsk". Displacement 75 thousand tons Able to carry up to 70 Su-27K, Su-25, 141-Yak, Mig-29K. Two catapults and trampoline and arresters. By the end of the year 91 was made one-third of the body. There was a cut on the stocks, and, together with the metal of the second housing project, I went to the smelter.

  At the cost of tremendous effort and expense, the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union, Nikolai Kuznetsov, the Fragment of the Empire, was repaired to a more or less floating state and brought to the North Atlantic. His brother, Admiral Gorshkov, now called Vikramaditya, is a member of the Indian Navy.   

  MiG-29K did not go into mass production. Pilots of deck aircraft, today less than astronauts. The training complex NITKA, for training pilots, has just now returned to us together with the Crimea.

  The two only places in the country where aircraft carrier laying is possible are Baltiysky Zavod OJSC in St. Petersburg, and Severny Mashinostroitelny Zavod in Severodvinsk (Vikramaditya is being modernized there). The stocks of these plants allow laying vessels with a displacement of up to 55 thousand tons.

  US attack aircraft carriers are capable of carrying a full-fledged air strike force, which has fighters, attack aircraft, EW and DRLO aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft. Search and rescue and transport helicopter group, which includes the submarine combat unit. Steam catapults can "shoot" and aircraft with low thrust-to-hand ratio.

  To protect our maritime borders, to protect our interests, the coastal plume, and this is 200 miles, or 370 km., Requires mobile sea groups, including aircraft carriers, escort ships, submarines, and support vessels. Aircraft operating from coastal aerodromes can cover sea connections only on 200-250km. maximum. Ships, submarines that are outside this distance, in fact, remain without air cover.

 Having no fleet of aircraft carriers, it becomes a coastal fleet, being under cover of coastal aviation.


Carriers that are part of the world:


1. Strike aircraft carriers, they are also called strategic (with a displacement of 50-100 thousand tons)

  • 10sht. All nuclear power plant, the United States Navy.


2. Multipurpose (medium, water capacity 30-50 thousand tons)

  • "Charles de Gaulle" in France.

  • "Liaoning" China.

  • "Admiral Kuznetsov" Russia.

  • "Sao Paulo" in Brazil.

  • "Vakramaditya" India.

3. Light aircraft carriers with a displacement of 10-25 thousand tons. having on board only VTOL aircraft have: England, Spain, India, Italy, Thailand.


Valery Smirnov specifically for

The USSR, having a huge length of land borders, needed first of all in their defense ...
Does the need for border protection somehow depend on whether they are land-based or not? And what does "turn" mean in border protection? In addition, Russia has two times LESS land borders than sea borders, actually ...
Not even further, in the entire article - the author's continuous speculations about catapults, and about the purpose of aircraft-carrying ships and their planes in the USSR, and about the "illiterate leadership", and about THREAD, etc. etc. (only in the history of the life of aircraft carriers and was essentially). The argument of an amateur with a claim to teach the General Staff about what exactly "is required to protect the sea borders." For the information of the author, the purpose of the Russian aircraft-carrying ships is not at all the protection of "borders", but exclusively the protection of the RPKSN in the air defense missile defense system. Hence - and the number of aircraft-carrying cruisers, and the composition of the wing, and the fuel supply, and the type of aircraft start (the steam catapult simply freezes), etc. You need to delve into the question more carefully!

... As a rule, an airborne strike grouping includes an operational combination of air defense ships, an antisubmarine defense compound, and an anti-ship defense ...
Air defense and anti-aircraft defense missions are primarily addressed by the aircraft of the aircraft carrier itself. PLO can be effectively provided also only by aircraft carrier aircraft and escort planes. The rest of the surface ships - just "to the heap" (and for nuclear powered submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers - and the tanker is not needed: auxiliary ships - for escort destroyers) - for "flag demonstration" (intimidation).

Jump is the English know-how. They offered him Amer, they were delighted, but did not alter the ships and the issue nizkoenergovooruzhennyh ups. AWACS and tankers, and so on. And we jump slyamzili. Author: Read about ibly 1970-80-HGG.