"King-plane" (aka "Tsar Bomba" AN602, and wrongly, RN202 and RDS-202) - thermonuclear bombs, which was developed in 1954 - 1961 years. a team of nuclear physicists under the guidance of IV Kurchatov. In the history of the most powerful explosive device. According to various sources, the total energy of the explosion ranged from up to 57 58,6 megatons of TNT, which corresponds to the mass defect 2,65 kg, or about 2,4 1017 • J.

The number of developers were N. Babayev, Yuri Smirnov, VB Adamski, Sakharov, Y. A. Trutnev and others.



Immediately it is worth saying that the official name of the bomb AN602 did not have. The original name "Kuz'kina mother" first appeared under the impression of NS Khrushchev's statement, which was known to everyone: "We will still show America Kuz'kina's mother!". In correspondence for РН202 one more designation "product В" was used (this was later called AN602). Therefore, to date, this is the cause of confusion. Often AN602 is identified (erroneously) with PH202 or RDS-37. Moreover, AN602 as a result has a "hybrid" designation RDS-202. As for the name "king-bomb", it was due to the fact that the product was the most destructive and powerful weapon in history.

Development of the "king-aircraft"

There is a common myth that the "Tsar Bomb" was created in a record short time on the orders of Khrushchev. The design and creation was allegedly spent 112 days. It turns out that the work on the project took place over seven years - with 1954 1961 on year, with 2-summer break. And in 1954-1958 years. stomegatonnoy over bomb work led SRI-1011. Transportation and disposal of the bomb placed on the shoulders of a time-tested bomber Tu-95 and ego modification of the Tu-95V.

The design of the bomb made many design changes. AN602 characterized by a three-tier structure, namely a nuclear warhead 1-Tier launched thermonuclear reaction in 2-th stage, and she initiated the so-called nuclear reaction Jekyll-Hyde in 3-th stage. Total estimated capacity - 101,5 megatons.

The original version of the bomb was rejected because of high contamination. It was therefore decided to abandon the "reaction Jekyll-Hyde" and lead to replace the equivalent uranium components. As a result, the estimated power of the explosion has decreased to 51,5 megatons.

In the autumn of the year 1954 held talks with Igor Kurchatov AN Tupolev, resulting began studies on "the topic 242». AV Nadashkevich became the leader of the topic. As a result of structural analysis found that the suspension of such a large concentrated load needs to be major changes in the design of the bomb bay, the scheme of the original aircraft and discharge devices and suspension.

Weight, overall and layout drawings AN602 were agreed in the first half of 1955. The mass of the bomb, as planned, was 15 percent of the take-off weight of the carrier, but its large dimensions forced to remove the fuselage fuel tanks. The new beam holder BD-242 and BD7-95-242 was developed for suspension. He was close to DB-206 for design features, but at the same time significantly more lifting. He had an 3 bomber lock with a payload of nine tons each. It was attached directly to the power longitudinal beams. The problem of controlling the bomb disposal was also solved - three locks were opened synchronously by means of electroautomatics.

Draft resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers and the CPSU Central Committee on the preparation and the beginning of the test was passed in March 12 1956, the

test data

Explosion AN602 classification refers to the low-power ultra aerial bombings. Everyone was impressed by the results:

1. The fireball of the explosion reached a radius of 4,6 km. In theory, it is capable of growing to the surface of the earth, but the reflected shock wave prevented this, throwing it off the ground.

2. Nuclear mushroom explosion at an altitude of 67 km, the diameter of its two-tier "cap" at the upper tier reached 95 km.

3. Light radiation could cause third degree burns at a distance of up to one hundred kilometers.

4. A perceptible seismic wave that arose after the explosion circled the globe three times.

5. The witnesses felt the blow at a distance of 100 km from its center and were able to describe it.

6. The sound wave that was generated by the explosion reached Dikson Island at a distance of about 800 km. But the sources do not report any damage or destruction of structures even in the settlements of Belushya Guba and Amderma much closer (280 km) to the landfill.

7. Radioactive contamination in the epicenter area did not exceed 1 mR per hour. Two hours after the explosion, testers appeared at the epicenter site. Radioactive contamination posed almost no danger to the participants.

8. Ionization of the atmosphere caused interference to radio communications at a distance of one hundred kilometers from the test site for 40 minutes.

The main goal pursued by testers is to demonstrate the possession of the USSR by super-powerful weapons of mass destruction. By that time, the TNT equivalent of the highest power of a thermonuclear bomb in the United States was almost 4 times less than AN602. 

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