And-12 (ANT-23)
And-12 (ANT-23)

Tupolev airplanes and-12 (ANT-23). A photo. History. Characteristics.


And-12, or formerly known as ANT-23, designed specifically for gun dynamo-reactive type of production LV Kurchevsky. Designing started the first of April 1929 years and six months TsAGI was presented preliminary design. The project developed a special technical requirements, contributing to a heavy fighter to fight at an altitude of up to 5000 m against enemy aircraft. To this end, he established two AIC caliber 76,2 mm. Shells stuffed with buckshot. In November of the same year, several draft copies were shown on the NTC meeting.

After the meeting, the aircraft was finally approved. In addition to the appearance, they considered and adopted the option in which the construction of a two-beam single-seat all-metal fighter was envisaged. It used air-cooled engines "Jupiter" 420 horsepower. Plumage two-kevy. Kurchevsky guns were installed inside the steel pipe beams (diameter 170 mm). For the first time in the history of aircraft construction, TsAGI used sheet plating with outer zigzags in a two-spar wing. (Rifts) step 150 mm. For the development and construction of an aircraft engineer in charge ASSC VN Chernyshev.

And-12 (ANT-23) photo

Assembling fighter ended in the summer of 1931 years, and he was sent to the airfield. On finishing the propeller system is gone for another month. In late August, the first time the plane took off, showing satisfactory performance. But the improvement of the car did not stop. During the flight of experienced designers found that the vertical tail double type is outside the zone of blowing propellers, resulting in inefficient rulezhu and run.

This is why during the flight tests on the airplane attached single-fin tail, after strengthening its rigidity braces. Area ailerons increased. Failed demonstrated themselves engine cowling. This led to the accident aircraft during one of the tests: slivers blown rear fairing screw.

On-12 and installed a new front engine hood. Often subjected to rework mount the horizontal stabilizer. The specificity was the fact that it was connected to a power system with a bony chassis.

By late summer, the aircraft was prepared for combat testing. In November, held after the aircraft took place finishing Ground shooting at the airport Air Force Research Institute. The first shooting was successfully conducted, but the transport plane in Moscow there was a small accident, because of which snapped chassis. Repair accompanied by some modifications. Three months later, in February 31 year test pilot IF Kozlov ferried And-12 in Monino for further fire tests.

In March, the plane was sent to the Kuntsevo landfill. They tried the AIC in the air. Each gun was equipped with two shells: one in the trunk, the second in the store. During the fighting tests there was an accident. The plane with small losses in the design still managed to be saved, and the test pilot was awarded the Order of the Red Star. After the accident, a meeting was held near Tukhachevsky. It decided to refine the gun, reinforce the ribs and increase their thickness. After the repair, the plane took off again 21 times, but due to a number of shortcomings it was decided to stop its development. As a result, the plane was dismantled, and parts of it were sent to different factories.

And-12 (ANT-23) photo 2

In the future, we planned to resume the project called I-12bis. The scheme used the same but changed the number of arrangements, in particular the geometric parameters: wingspan - 15,6 m Aircraft length - 7,5 m, wing area - 33 square. m. Increased aerodynamics.

Construction began in the year 1931, but further development was stopped due to the poor results of the first machine. The build process was very difficult, constantly brings new changes and additions. Leaders almost did not pay enough attention to the project. In 1933, the building took up the organization of the Young Communist League. And the plane almost managed to complete, but in January 1 34, the Deputy Chief of TsAGI ordered to stop construction, and 12bis.

The characteristics of the aircraft and-12:

Modification   And-12
Wingspan, m   15.60
Length m   9.50
Height, m   2.86
Wing area, m2   30.00
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   1540
  normal takeoff   2400
engine's type   2 PD Gnome-Rhone 9AK Jupiter-6
Power, hp   2 x 420 (525)
Maximum speed km / h  
  near the ground   300
  on high   280
Cruising speed, km / h   282
Practical ceiling, m  
Crew   1
Armament:   two 76 mm guns APK-4




It is good that the I-12 did not go into series production. It was almost impossible to get into an enemy fighter and even a bomber from these dynamo-reactive firecrackers. And most importantly: It was a very dangerous machine, to leave at speed with a parachute
this plane in an emergency was practically suicide. The rotating screw of the pushing motor is essentially a meat grinder. Even if you turn off the engine, the blades from the incoming air flow will still rotate.

Aircraft like. I was most interested in what made such a small plane, which could lead to long-range combat air 1930 year. I think this improvement was not invented for nothing, and most likely for security reasons.
Still, a very good thing that the engineers have designed, and later made it a plane. Because it is small and can easily do the maneuvers.
Also, I was interested in the fact that-12 and perfected. At the time, this is not engaged, the aircraft was discarded and built a new one.
Very much I was interested and intrigued flight Kozlov on Kuznetsky site. And of interest to me is that he is so well-thought out and planted the plane on the runway, and this despite the fact that the tail boom was damaged and the paneling was completely torn. Every minute was then very expensive. He had to think things through, to do the right thing and he did so. No wonder it was awarded after such a flight.
Maybe I did not notice, but it seems to me that ANT-23 do not have any weaknesses. It is excellent. Small, equipped and powerful thing. These qualities are given full opportunity to destroy the enemy.
Still very impressed that the plane would resume on production. But, unfortunately, it did not.

Ugly plane. It looks terrible. Made under the dynamo-gun, and his return is not torment? The idea of ​​a light, but well armed fighters at that time was poor. Since the very armament was not very much. I mean proportions - small aircraft, large gun. It is now a little can make a huge racket BUUM. And then ... well for everybody.

Another unfinished Soviet Mahina. Although nothing stopped the completion of the "dynamo". As history has shown the Germans a similar unit finalized and quietly burned our T-34 and Isa. Or maybe it's the answer to the fate of the foolish Soviet policy, in which one of the chief designers simply executed for alleged embezzlement of state-property.