IL-18
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IL-18

Ilyushin IL-18 (IL-18)

 

 

IL-18 (NATO code: "Coot") - a passenger aircraft for medium-range aviation lines, made according to the scheme of a four-engine turboprop low-wing aircraft. Single-finned plumage. The first Soviet turboprop liner.

 

History of creation

 

In 1950-ies, when it became evident that the passenger aircraft equipped with piston engines do not meet the rapid growth of air transport, there is a need in high-speed and spacious aircraft equipped with gas turbine engines. The OKB Tupolev went through the establishment on the basis of Tu-16 jet bomber Tu-104 passenger aircraft. The Ilyushin Design Bureau decided to design a passenger aircraft, equipped with a theater.

On 25.05.1956/703/404, the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union adopted a resolution number 18-18 on the creation of an IL26.08.195 passenger aircraft with four turboprop engines. The preliminary design of the Il1956 was approved by S.V. Ilyushin on August 1957, 18, and in September XNUMX, construction of the first e-experimental model began. In June XNUMX, at the Moscow Central Aerodrome, a review was held by the leaders of the government and the party headed by Nikita Khrushchev of the first IlXNUMX, at the suggestion of the First Secretary of the Moscow City Committee of the CPSU, Furtseva E.A.

 

IL-18 plane

 

The prototype made its first flight on 04.07.1957/1/57, having flown from the MV Frunze Central Aerodrome to the city of Zhukovsky (flight duration - 20 hour 4 minutes). The tests involved aircraft equipped with AI-20 and NK-XNUMX engines. The results of the tests showed that the AIXNUMX designed by A.G. Ivchenko is more reliable, therefore it was chosen for installation on production aircraft.

Experimental aircraft were designed for 75 people. In 1958, the Il18A version was created, having a takeoff weight of 58 tons and a passenger compartment increased to 89 seats. This was the first model in the series. Due to the unreliable operation of the engine, from January 1959, the use of Il18A aircraft with NK-4 engines was discontinued. The IL8B modification with a payload increased to 14 tons and a larger take-off weight (61,5 tons) appeared in the same 1958. On April 20.04.1959, 18, the first two passenger flights IlXNUMX took place on the route Adler-Moscow and Alma-Ata-Moscow.

In 1960, the Il18V was created, which differs from the Il18B variant in the increased level of convenience and the use of excellent flight and navigation equipment.

In the OKB in 1965, the Il18E aircraft was designed, which was designed for 120 seats and had an even more comfortable cabin. The last passenger model is the Il18D aircraft, on which instead of the AI20K theater, the AI20M was used, fuel tanks were added in the wing center section, and an approach control system was installed. Thanks to the additional fuel, the flight range has been increased.

 

IL-18 salon

IL-18 Salon

 

In addition to passenger aircraft, other options were created in the Design Bureau: cargo, service, patrol, including:

  • anti Il38;

  • EW aircraft Il20;

  • airborne command post Il22;

  • aircraft for ice reconnaissance Il24.

 

One of the Il-18V aircraft was converted for flights to Antarctica: additional fuel tanks were installed in the passenger cabin, which made it possible to perpetuate the fuel supply (31 thousand liters). It should be noted that the Moscow-Antarctica relay was served, as a rule, by Il-18 planes flying in the skies of Africa, performing simultaneously cargo and passenger transportation on regional airlines.

In 1958-1959, Il-18 planes set twenty world records for altitude and flight range with different payloads.

Due to their efficiency, comfort and safety level, the Il18 aircraft aroused interest in the world market, so most foreign companies bought these aircraft. It became the first Soviet passenger aircraft that was in wide demand at the world level: more than 100 aircraft were built for seventeen foreign companies.

IL-18

Serially produced at the plant number 30 "Znamya truda", which was located on the Khodynskoye field near the Central airfield in Moscow from 1959 to 1978.

Construction of IL-18

IL-18 - is an all-metal monoplane, which has a low-wing with four turboprop engines AI-20 and deck scheme plumage.

Aerodynamic design completed, taking into account the highest possible safety and the need to achieve economic indicators fuel consumption. Particular attention was paid to the design of the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing.

Wing aircraft IL-unswept 18, 10 has an elongation and contraction 3. Thanks to well selected at a time aerodynamic configuration was able to get good speed performance, directional stability and safety of the flight at various angles of attack. By reducing flight speed to stall speed (about 180 km / h), the aircraft can back up to speed, responding effectively to all controls.

On the wing pairs placed TMD AI-20. Internal engines have more advanced nacelle from the lower side of the wing. They are used for fixing and removing the main landing gear.

Choosing towards turboprop engines on IL-18 in while actively implemented turbojet engines, due, above all, the best indicators of profitability, which was confirmed by long-term operation of the aircraft.

The first copies of the IL-18 staffed engines AI-20 or NK-4. After a series of tests of AI-20 recognized more reliable, and in the subsequent production models began to complete exactly this type of engines.

A significant step forward was the use on the liner IL-18 hermetic fuselage with turbocharging systems and air-conditioning compressor from the engine, which provided a normal state of health of the crew and passengers at any height.

Due to the occurrence during the flight of excess pressure inside the fuselage was necessary to adapt the structure under fatigue stresses. Especially carefully examined the problem of repetitive stress and fatigue strength, because at that time the plane crashed British "Comet" due to fatigue failure of the fuselage skin.

IL-18 cabin

In order to protect the flight, it was necessary to develop a lot of new techniques and design solutions with respect to all of the fuselage and its individual units and systems.

The good economic performance of the IL-18 confirmed its successful and long-term operation. The main indicator of profitability - it is a huge weight returns payload equal to 46-49% take-off weight of the aircraft. This was achieved due to the rational use of new materials, design and calculation methods. It is possible to obtain a smaller consumption of operating cost than that of counterparts of the time, not only due to the weight returns, but also good aerodynamic data of the aircraft engines and AI-20, which has a low consumption of fuel per flight 1 km.

IL-18 aircraft design is characterized by high adaptability, thus reducing the cost of the aircraft, its maintenance and repair.

To the aircraft was durable, it was necessary to systematically upgrade, it was a constant concern of all employees of OKB headed by General Designer. IL-18 has received many modifications. Each subsequent modernization differ in the number of passenger seats, an increased level of comfort, reliability and safety of passenger transportation, increased flight range indicator, which increased the total profitability of the aircraft.

 

Driving salon IL-18

IL-18 interior scheme

 

Features IL-18:

  • Length: 35.9m.

  • Height: 10.2m.

  • Empty weight: 33760kg.

  • Wingspan: 37.4m.

  • Wing area: 140.0sqm

  • Cruising speed: 625km / h..

  • Maximum speed: 685km / h..

  • Ceiling: 10000m.

  • Flight range with maximum load: 4300 km.

  • Engines: 4hAI-20M.

  • Link: 4x4250l.s.

  • Number of seats: 120mest.

  • Maximum takeoff weight: 64000kg.

  • Maximum payload: 13 500kg.

  • Capacity of fuel tanks: 23700l.

  • Maximum range: 7100km.

  • the run length: 1000m.

  • path length: 800m.

  • interior length: 24.0m.

  • The width of the passenger compartment: 3.23m.

  • Cabin height: 2.00m.

OKB Ilyushin Aircraft

Other planes

Legend, not the plane. I had the pleasure a few times on it to fly from Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk to Moscow.

I flew on this plane 18 years. Rattling barn.

I did not notice this. Yes, there is noise from the screws, and quite strong, especially on the contrary. But it goes smoothly gently, still high-rise.

It happened twice, in 1964-65 to fly on Il 18. I remember the plane was called "Swan", "Handsome". You can't say more precisely! The most pleasant memories. Great car.

I'm on the pilot profession - an engineer. But IL-18 flew as a passenger. I had the first time to fly on this machine in 1977 was still a child, and the second time I flew in IL-18 18 years. My opinion is, this machine is good for its time, and I can not stress its reliability. And most importantly, that the plane landed so gently that it is impossible to understand, when the landing gear touched the runway.

I first flew IL-18 1976 year in the month of December. I was flying from Krasnoyarsk to Moscow, and later I also had to fly on this machine. The only negative that I can mention is the noise of the aircraft, that is, I mostly fly in the second cabin, so the silence and never dreamed of, but if you fly in the third cabin feel full of grace. It is a pity that the IL-18 decided not to apply for the carriage of passengers, for example, I do not think that the car was too old.
Bogdan:

I lived in Novosibirsk, and at my shelter often flew different aircraft, but the pleasant noise, which produced a flight of IL-18, I recognized immediately, as this marvelous flying machine simply amazing! Plane in the sky looks very nice. And yet, the fact that the aircraft first visited the South Pole, suggests that it is a reliable machine. Personally, I had to fly it a couple of times. Alas, these aircraft to date has been very little. I rarely watch today in IL-18 sky, but every time I know this car for signature sound of motors. This aircraft can be called - a legend!

Beautiful plane! Living in Kamchatka, we often fly it on vacation. Yes - close, but - for a long time, but it felt fine, since we believe in this plane. Several times caught a connecting flight in the IL-62 and Tu-114. Also excellent aircraft, but also for changing over a native IL-18. I would also like DO-2. On it we were flying to Petropavlovsk and back. About the shaking and noise - I did not feel any discomfort. I often took with him his father to fly a helicopter. Here there is really noisy!

I always liked to admire the Il-18 airplane. And in my head there was always a dream of flying at least once. It seemed to me that I would not find this flying car, but a miracle happened! The fact is that some airlines are still working with such an airplane. I flew from Pyongyang to Samgion. And I can say that the flight just struck me. How nice it all is to fly to IL-18. Some say that during the flight a terrible noise, vibration and the like are being published. Well, if you sit in the toilet, where the screws rotate, then you can really be stunned by the noise. I, for example, sat in front and behind, while I can not say anything bad. After flying to IL-18 I liked this car even more. Yes, and judging by the words of some airlines they are not going to write off this plane.

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