Ilushin Il-18 (IL-18)

IL-18 (according to NATO coding: “Protak” (Coot)) - a passenger aircraft for medium-range aircraft lines, made according to the scheme of a four-engine turboprop low plan. Single-tail plumage. The first turboprop Soviet liner.

History of creation

In 1950-ies, when it became evident that the passenger aircraft equipped with piston engines do not meet the rapid growth of air transport, there is a need in high-speed and spacious aircraft equipped with gas turbine engines. The OKB Tupolev went through the establishment on the basis of Tu-16 jet bomber Tu-104 passenger aircraft. The Ilyushin Design Bureau decided to design a passenger aircraft, equipped with a theater.

25.05.1956 of the year adopted a resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union number 703 — 404 on the creation of an Il18 passenger aircraft with four turboprop engines. The sketch project Il18 was approved by S.V. Ilyushin 26.08.195, in September 1956 began the construction of the first experimental sample. In June, 1957 at the Central Aerodrome of Moscow was reviewed by the leaders of the government and the party headed by N. Khrushchev. First Il18, at the suggestion of the First Secretary of the City Moscow Committee of the CPSU, E. Furtseva, the aircraft was named Moscow.

IL-18 plane

The prototype made the first flight of 04.07.1957, having flown from the Central Airfield named after Frunze MV to the city of Zhukovsky (flight duration - 1 hour of 57 minutes). Aircraft equipped with AI-20 and NK-4 engines took part in the tests. The results of the tests showed that the AINNX designs by Ivchenko A.G. are more reliable, therefore he was elected to be mounted on production aircraft.

Experimental aircraft were calculated on 75 people. In 1958, the Il18A variant was created, having a take-off weight of 58 tons and a passenger compartment increased to 89 seats. It was the first model in the series. Due to the unreliable operation of the motor, from January 1959, the use of Il18А aircraft with the NK-4 engines was discontinued. A modification of Il8B with a payload increased to 14 tons and a greater take-off weight (61,5 tons) appeared in the same 1958 year. 20.04.1959 passed the first two passenger flights Il18 on the route Adler-Moscow and Alma-Ata-Moscow.

In 1960, the Il18B was created, which differs from the Il18B variant with an increased level of amenities and the use of excellent flight and navigation equipment.

In the design bureau in 1965, the Il18E aircraft was designed, which was designed for 120 seats and had an even more comfortable cabin. The last passenger model, the Il18D aircraft, on which the AI20M were used instead of the AY20K, was added fuel tanks in the center section of the wing, as well as an approach control system. Thanks to the extra fuel, the range has been increased.

Salon IL-18

IL-18 Salon

In addition to passenger planes, other options were created in the Design Bureau and other options: cargo, service, patrol, including:

  • anti Il38;

  • EW aircraft Il20;

  • airborne command post Il22;

  • aircraft for ice reconnaissance Il24.

One of the IL-18В aircraft was converted for flights to Antarctica: additional fuel tanks were installed in the passenger cabin, which made it possible to increase the fuel level (31 thousand liters). It should be noted that the “Moscow-Antarctica” baton was served, as a rule, by Il18 planes flying in the skies of Africa, while carrying out cargo and passenger traffic on regional air lines.

In 1958 — 1959, the Il18 planes set twenty world records in altitude and range with different payloads.

The Il18 airplanes caused interest in the global market because of their economy, level of comfort and safety, so most foreign companies bought these airplanes. It became the first Soviet passenger aircraft that enjoyed widespread demand on a global scale: for seventeen foreign companies, over 100 aircraft were built.


Serially produced at the plant number 30 "Banner of Labor", which was located on the Khodynka field near the Central Airport in Moscow from 1959 to 1978 year.

Construction of IL-18

IL-18 - is an all-metal monoplane, which has a low-wing with four turboprop engines AI-20 and deck scheme plumage.

Aerodynamic design completed, taking into account the highest possible safety and the need to achieve economic indicators fuel consumption. Particular attention was paid to the design of the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing.

Wing aircraft IL-unswept 18, 10 has an elongation and contraction 3. Thanks to well selected at a time aerodynamic configuration was able to get good speed performance, directional stability and safety of the flight at various angles of attack. By reducing flight speed to stall speed (about 180 km / h), the aircraft can back up to speed, responding effectively to all controls.

On the wing pairs placed TMD AI-20. Internal engines have more advanced nacelle from the lower side of the wing. They are used for fixing and removing the main landing gear.

Choosing towards turboprop engines on IL-18 in while actively implemented turbojet engines, due, above all, the best indicators of profitability, which was confirmed by long-term operation of the aircraft.

The first copies of the IL-18 staffed engines AI-20 or NK-4. After a series of tests of AI-20 recognized more reliable, and in the subsequent production models began to complete exactly this type of engines.

A significant step forward was the use on the liner IL-18 hermetic fuselage with turbocharging systems and air-conditioning compressor from the engine, which provided a normal state of health of the crew and passengers at any height.

Due to the occurrence during the flight of excess pressure inside the fuselage was necessary to adapt the structure under fatigue stresses. Especially carefully examined the problem of repetitive stress and fatigue strength, because at that time the plane crashed British "Comet" due to fatigue failure of the fuselage skin.

IL-18 cabin

In order to protect the flight, it was necessary to develop a lot of new techniques and design solutions with respect to all of the fuselage and its individual units and systems.

The good economic performance of the IL-18 confirmed its successful and long-term operation. The main indicator of profitability - it is a huge weight returns payload equal to 46-49% take-off weight of the aircraft. This was achieved due to the rational use of new materials, design and calculation methods. It is possible to obtain a smaller consumption of operating cost than that of counterparts of the time, not only due to the weight returns, but also good aerodynamic data of the aircraft engines and AI-20, which has a low consumption of fuel per flight 1 km.

IL-18 aircraft design is characterized by high adaptability, thus reducing the cost of the aircraft, its maintenance and repair.

To the aircraft was durable, it was necessary to systematically upgrade, it was a constant concern of all employees of OKB headed by General Designer. IL-18 has received many modifications. Each subsequent modernization differ in the number of passenger seats, an increased level of comfort, reliability and safety of passenger transportation, increased flight range indicator, which increased the total profitability of the aircraft.

Driving salon IL-18

IL-18 interior scheme

Features IL-18:

  • Length: 35.9m.

  • Height: 10.2.

  • Empty weight: 33760kg.

  • Wingspan: 37.4.

  • Wing area: 140.0kv.m.

  • Cruising speed: 625km / h..

  • Maximum speed: 685km / h..

  • Ceiling: 10000m.

  • Range with maximum load: 4300km.

  • Engines: 4hAI-20M.

  • Link: 4x4250l.s.

  • Number of seats: 120mest.

  • Maximum takeoff weight: 64000kg.

  • Maximum payload: 13 500kg.

  • Capacity of fuel tanks: 23700l.

  • Maximum range: 7100km.

  • the run length: 1000m.

  • path length: 800m.

  • interior length: 24.0m.

  • The width of the passenger compartment: 3.23m.

  • Cabin height: 2.00m.

OKB Ilyushin Aircraft

Other planes

Legend, not the plane. I had the pleasure a few times on it to fly from Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk to Moscow.

I flew on this plane 18 years. Rattling barn.

I did not notice this. Yes, there is noise from the screws, and quite strong, especially on the contrary. But it goes smoothly gently, still high-rise.

It was possible to double, in 1964-65, the fly on the aircraft IL 18.Pomnyu called "Swan", "Beauty". Or rather not say! The most pleasant memories. Beautiful car.

I'm on the pilot profession - an engineer. But IL-18 flew as a passenger. I had the first time to fly on this machine in 1977 was still a child, and the second time I flew in IL-18 18 years. My opinion is, this machine is good for its time, and I can not stress its reliability. And most importantly, that the plane landed so gently that it is impossible to understand, when the landing gear touched the runway.

I first flew IL-18 1976 year in the month of December. I was flying from Krasnoyarsk to Moscow, and later I also had to fly on this machine. The only negative that I can mention is the noise of the aircraft, that is, I mostly fly in the second cabin, so the silence and never dreamed of, but if you fly in the third cabin feel full of grace. It is a pity that the IL-18 decided not to apply for the carriage of passengers, for example, I do not think that the car was too old.

I lived in Novosibirsk, and at my shelter often flew different aircraft, but the pleasant noise, which produced a flight of IL-18, I recognized immediately, as this marvelous flying machine simply amazing! Plane in the sky looks very nice. And yet, the fact that the aircraft first visited the South Pole, suggests that it is a reliable machine. Personally, I had to fly it a couple of times. Alas, these aircraft to date has been very little. I rarely watch today in IL-18 sky, but every time I know this car for signature sound of motors. This aircraft can be called - a legend!

Beautiful plane! Living in Kamchatka, we often fly it on vacation. Yes - close, but - for a long time, but it felt fine, since we believe in this plane. Several times caught a connecting flight in the IL-62 and Tu-114. Also excellent aircraft, but also for changing over a native IL-18. I would also like DO-2. On it we were flying to Petropavlovsk and back. About the shaking and noise - I did not feel any discomfort. I often took with him his father to fly a helicopter. Here there is really noisy!

I always liked to admire the Il-18 airplane. And in my head there was always a dream of flying at least once. It seemed to me that I would not find this flying car, but a miracle happened! The fact is that some airlines are still working with such an airplane. I flew from Pyongyang to Samgion. And I can say that the flight just struck me. How nice it all is to fly to IL-18. Some say that during the flight a terrible noise, vibration and the like are being published. Well, if you sit in the toilet, where the screws rotate, then you can really be stunned by the noise. I, for example, sat in front and behind, while I can not say anything bad. After flying to IL-18 I liked this car even more. Yes, and judging by the words of some airlines they are not going to write off this plane.