Ilyushin Il-54


IL-54 - subsonic bomber with two turbojet engines AL-7 under wing pylons and a great scheme chassis.

History of the IL-54

Continuing to work towards improving jet bomber, focusing on improving his striking power and performance, the team constructs SV Ilyushin pristupki the development of transonic jet bomber Il-54 1952 in the year.

The new model aircraft must have a maximum flight speed and 2400-2750 km range of practical, 3 thousand. Kg bomb load. The development of such a bomber aircraft performance data while performing quite complex engineering task.


To achieve such a supersonic flight speed, it was necessary to install on the plane a too thin wing with a sweep. Providing maximum speed without disrupting handling and stability, such a wing at cruising flight speeds had a much worse aerodynamic quality, in contrast to wings of less sweep. As a result, it was possible to achieve the required range of flight on an airplane only by increasing the fuel reserve. It turned out that the thin wing, which had a large sweep, turned out to be less effective at take-off and landing, which, in combination with the increased takeoff weight of the aircraft, resulted in an increase in the landing speed and the detachment speed of IL-54, the runway length.

Experimental and computational studies TsAGI EDO and allowed to find the optimum combination of weight, dimensions and traction needs IL-54 motors, resulting in failed to fulfill all requirements for the aircraft of similar purpose. The basis of the basic parameters of the selected 2 layout diagrams of the aircraft have been established.

SV Ilyushin approved the first scheme in March 1953 years. It involves the creation of IL-54 by type sredneplana with two turbojet engines, and who were in the wing roots, and on top of it is horizontal tail. The main wheels on this aircraft were removed forward flight (in the process of cleaning the wheel rotates through 90 degrees) mezhlonzherennoe space wing box.

During the subsequent improvement of the layout scheme it was abandoned due to the fact that the calculated speed of flight exhibit strong interference resistance gondolas engines, which were close to the fuselage, due to the need to create large compartments for gear in the power of the wing box, which increased its weight complicated and very power of the wing pattern.


The second layout scheme was approved in November 1953 year. It was developed under the supervision of A.M. Lyulka, had two AL-7 engines. Il-54 began to be created according to the high-plan scheme with a simple arrangement of horizontal tail. The engines on this model were installed in gondolas (in the same way as on IL-22), which were suspended under the wing. This arrangement of motors contributed to their less resistance at high flight speeds. The air intakes of the engines were above the runway rather high, and when working on the ground they did not suck in foreign objects from its surface.

The Il-54 aircraft used a bicycle scheme of the chassis with the main bearings standing far apart, with twin wheels. The thin wing could hardly fit the outer wheels, and that, let alone the compressed gondola engines. The front chassis support was manageable. As for the rear, it was behind the bomb bay at a great distance from the center of mass. As a result, the front was heavily loaded, which made it difficult to detach the front support from the ground while maintaining the landing angle, with takeoff and with the run after landing. Thus, the length of the run and takeoff of the aircraft increased. To facilitate the detachment of the support, a special mechanism was included in the structure of the rear support, due to which, in fact, the shortening of the rear support during the take-off was provided.

Cut-outs in the bottom of the fuselage under the bomb bay, radar antenna and chassis compartments, severe stress, which were transferred during the landing by cycling supports the chassis, significantly complicated the creation of the fuselage structure.

Wing caisson with power, who had frequent stringer and set thick plating, the connector has been on the chord line around the wing span. Similarly, the same connector construction was stabilizer fin and aircraft.

The crew of the Il-54 consists of three people: a navigator, pilot and stern-arrow radio operator, which are housed in two airtight cockpits (front and rear). The navigator and the pilot got into the plane through a small door, located on the right side of the fuselage, while the shooter - through his cabin. Between the cockpits of the pilot and navigator there is a passage through which they can communicate among themselves in flight. All workplaces were characterized by strong armor protection. The crew in case of an emergency in flight could leave the car with the help of ejection seats. The shooter and navigator ejected down, the pilot - up. When an emergency landing on the water, they could get out through the upper hatches and take advantage of the rescue boat LAS-5M.


Equipment and armament of the aircraft ensured its successful application in difficult wartime conditions against vehicles of the enemy, troops and military equipment, can be used for engineering facilities and the destruction of strongholds located in the tactical depth of the defense and on the battlefield by the action of a single aircraft, as and in compounds with different heights at countering enemy ground air speed and fighter aircraft, in any weather conditions, day and night.

IL-54 was used as a bomber and torpedo bomber and low altitude torpedo, training aircraft and fotorazvedchik.

IL-54 characteristics:

Modification   IL-54
Wingspan, m   17.65
Length m   28.96
Height, m   7.90
Wing area, m2   84.60
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   24000
  normal takeoff   40660
  maximum take-off   41600
engine's type   2 TRD AL-7F
Thrust, kgf  
  unforced   X 2 6500
  forced   X 2 10000
Speed, km / h  
  maximum at height   1250
  maximum on the ground   1155
  cruising   910
Flight distance, km   3000
Takeoff, m   1075
Mileage, m   1150
Practical ceiling, m   14000
Crew   3
Armament:  3 x 23 mm NR-23 or two 23-mm guns TKB-4957: to protect the front hemisphere, one fixed front gun mounted on the left side of the fuselage; in the rear part of the aircraft fuselage, aft gun installation (Il-K8) with remote electro-hydraulic drive of two moving guns. Bomb load on the inner suspension: normal - 3000 kg, maximum - 5000 kg.



OKB Ilyushin Aircraft

Bicycle gear scheme at all to anything. Not surprisingly, it even on state tests was not sent.