Foreign Motors in domestic WWII aircraft
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Foreign Motors in domestic WWII aircraft

Foreign Motors in domestic WWII aircraft

 

After the end of World War II was a question of creating a jet aircraft. Country this was not ready. The development of the new area, without any reserve, excessively lengthened to re-timing of the Air Force. It was decided the only right decision: to use captured enemy equipment and produce engines for the acquisition of licenses.

KapitsaIn his letter to Stalin, written shortly after the war, Academician Kapitsa paid attention to the fallacy of the views and inefficient methods of executives responsible for the defense capability of the Soviet Union. He, in particular, wrote:

"It should be noted that, to a great regret, this was due to the fact that our industry and armaments developed on the basis of improving existing structures. For example, Yakovlev, Tupolev, Lavochkin are the largest designers, but they nevertheless improved the already existing type of aircraft. New types of aircraft, like turbojet, would require another type of designer, more creative and bold. Such people in our Union have little expanse. Therefore, the technique, mastered on fundamentally new ideas, like AB (Atomic Bomb - Auth.), V-2, radar, gas turbine, etc., in our Union is either weak or does not move at all. "

It was true, albeit very belated speech.

Soviet jet aircraft began to develop after the Second World War, in 1945 By this time, nothing has been done to move aircraft on the new technique had to start from scratch.

History ordered that on the first Soviet jet planes the engines of our recent adversary, Germany and ally Britain, were installed. This decision was made by the Soviet government. The huge successes of Germany in the field of creating jet aircraft by the Soviet side were defined in a peculiar way. Here is what AS Yakovlev said: "... the fascists managed to release several models of jet aircraft, in particular Messerschmitt-262." A small number of them in the last year of the war appeared even at the front ...

A small number of aircraft Me and Me-163-262 even managed to enter the front. However, no effect on the course of the air war is a Nazi "new weapons" could not have been, as well as jet Heinkel He-162 ». A similar assessment of the German jet aircraft of the war years were given, and others, in particular, test pilot SA Mikoyan:

"Work on the aircraft with jet engines were during the Second World War in Germany. It was established aircraft engine with zhidkostnoreaktivnym - Me-163 and jet engine - the Me-262. At the end of the war there were even attempts to use them in aerial combat, but because of imperfection and crudity, as well as numerous, they have not played a significant role. Work was carried out with the air-jet engines as in England and the United States, but flying on airplanes began almost until the end, and after the war. "

The main trophy engines used in the Soviet Union, were German: Jumo-004 (Soviet designation - RD-10) with traction 850 kg and BMW-003 (RD-20) with traction 800 kg.

 

BMW-003

BMW-003

 

Much work on the development of serial production of the British engine was conducted by Soviet specialists. Produced licensed engines "Derwent" with traction 1600 kg (RD-500) and NIN (RD-45, VC-1) with traction 2200 kg.

 

It is impossible to imagine the formation and development of the domestic jet aircraft engine without English NIN. It is printed in Soviet factories in big series, it was used as a power plant on the MiG-15, MiG-17, IL-28 et al. It works in the XXI century. (in Il-28 in some countries).

The decision was taken bold, but not able to give positive results on the existing aircraft of the Great Patriotic War. Instead of piston engines, captured engines were installed. The ideologists saw the dignity here too: the pilots did not have to get used to another cabin ... The main design principle was violated here: a jet plane is a single organism, and not a mechanical combination of incompatible aggregates. Huge work was carried out by designers, technologists, metallurgists and other specialists. The first planes were flying badly, their motor-resource was not large, sometimes it was enough only for delivery to the military representative. The first German jet engines had a service life of 25 h. High temperatures demanded new heat-resistant and heat-resistant alloys, they were created with great difficulties, and the main merit belongs not only to the famous but also to ordinary engineers, technicians, masters defeated by high awards.

So-called new jet technology hurry to present at air parades, wrote about the great achievements of Soviet science and technology, but not a word about the fact that it was our recent Technology sworn enemies, which is already outdated. Patriotic Soviet historical stamp that shortly after the war in the Soviet Union moved to aviation jet technology, has elements of truth, without addition: already old, poor, and not ours. This "transition" will happen only through 10 years ...

The Soviet side, as a winner country, received finished products, components, complete design and technological documentation, test benches and other equipment. German specialists were also involved; However, the main specialist - the head of the engine development department of the firm Junkers Dr. Anselm Franz - took a leading position in a major American company AVKO, and then moved to the firm "Laikoming", where he made a great contribution to the creation of turbojet engines. German specialists were in great demand. The United States "got" and the creator of the first ballistic missile, Werner von Braun. Leading German specialists worked in the Soviet Union after the war. The creator of the famous FW-190 aircraft designer Tank after the war worked in Argentina, etc.

After the war with Germany, the Allies have access to all types of military equipment of its former enemy. Of particular interest, of course, were the planes for the war experience has shown the advantage of German aviation in many respects. Germany was the only country to use jet aircraft in combat. A special place is occupied twin-engine jet fighter Me-262He was a great test of battle and, most importantly, showed that for jet aircraft is not a fantasy, or as an inevitable reality?

 

Me-262

Me-262

 

It is no coincidence that the victorious Allies interested in this fighter. Serviceable vehicles were delivered in the US (the company «Hugher»), France (company SNCASO), the UK (the Air Force Test Center in Farnborough). Plane Me-262 enrolled in the USSR, he carefully studied in TsAGI. It was decided to create a Soviet aircraft - a copy of the twin-engine fighter. This work was performed in 1946, the design bureau Sukhoi: appeared Su-9. Subsequently, at its base it was built more advanced Su-11.

These attempts to "create" analogues of the German fighter Me-262 and to them the German engines Jumo-004 (RD-10) did not lead to anything good. All work was stopped shortly after 19 August 1947 on this plane test pilot VG Masich. Immediately after the end of the Great Patriotic War, the NKVD bodies from defeated Germany were taken to the Soviet Union by a group of German engineers, designers, specialists in the field of aircraft construction and aircraft engine building. They were given good conditions for fruitful work: good living and material conditions, relative freedom in terms of creativity, provision of factory premises for the construction of aircraft samples, organization of aircraft tests.

Two design bureaus headed by German specialists: OKB-1 - Brunolf Baade (from the firm "Yun- Kersey") and OKB-2 - Hans Ressing. Deputy chief designer of the Soviet specialists were respectively P.N.Obrubov and AJ Bereznyak.

In 1949 of the two merged EDB, and the work continued under the unified leadership of SM Alexeyeva.

The work of German specialists in the Soviet Union was first reported in the journal "World Aircraft» (№ 1, 1995) in Article I. Suktanova. This topic is due to lack of patriotism was closed to discussion, but without the history of domestic aviation would be incomplete.

None of the aircraft, created with the participation of German designers are not produced commercially, but almost all were built and passed flight tests. There is no doubt that the work was not in vain - was obtained a wealth of material to be used by specialists in the creation of the first domestic jet.

 

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