History of ordinary things: aviation watches and other
Author's articles
History of ordinary things: aviation watches and other

History of ordinary things: aviation watches and more ...



How many things around us that have become so familiar that we do not even imagine that once people got along without them? Take a look around. Look at these things. A pencil, a kettle with a spout .... The list can be very long. After someone also once thought of before the invention of these things that seem to us simply commonplace ...

In aviation, as well as in the life around us, there are things that have appeared recently (by historical standards, of course). Now impossible to control any, even the most simple aircraft without flight data monitoring devices. There is no need to list them all, the simplest and oldest of them are pointers speed and altitude.

A lot of reading about the first steps of aviation, I noticed how little attention is paid to this issue, the subject devices that are equipped with the first, airplanes, machines heavier than air is already equipped with engines.

It is quite clear that the first devices were not enough, they were simple (not primitive, as is customary to say that is simple), but, nevertheless, for him to navigate in space and fly.

Originally I planned to write only about the appearance of the first aircraft hours. To be precise, not those that are on each instrument panel in the plane, but simply watches. Their appearance, we too are obliged to aviation. Yes, yes, men's watches at the beginning of the XX century there was virtually no, or rather they were not in fashion for men and women wristwatch bracelets complained. And only thanks to the aviation pioneer Louis Bleriot and Alberto Santos-Dumont, the famous clock at home began to produce watches men's watches.

But when I became closely involved in this subject, it turned out that the information on the first aircraft instruments too little. More precisely it is practically non-existent. So what of the equipment was on the first airplanes? I would like to look into the cockpit of the first aircraft.

The first thing that comes to mind when thinking about the equipment of the first aircraft cabs is a normal compass. Although, at a time when the planes were doing only jumps in the race fields in need of a compass, it was not clear. Only when flights began on the first routes, flights with trajectory other than a straight line, a compass might be needed. And then, if you take into account the heights at which flights took place, the need for a compass is not so obvious. Landmarks on the ground was enough to determine its place. Even in the 30-x years, some drivers were restoring their orientation on the ground, reading the names of the railway stations, and checking the map, were determined with their position.

With the clock is also clearly not all as it would seem. First-flying jumps occurred, usually at a large gathering of people, and, of course, note the time of the jump could anyone. Including officials who are often invited to fix the fact of flight. The exception is, except that only afraid of all Bratya Rayt, who flew in the middle of nowhere, trying not to attract undue attention to his flight, both the press and onlookers, not to mention about officials.

Therefore, in Europe, in France, we were absolutely certain flight championship on machines heavier than air to an internal combustion engine, the eccentric and wealthy Brazilian Santos-Dumont. About the names of the Wright brothers overseas one to 1908 years and never heard of.

Consequently, neither the clock nor a compass were not essentials on board an airplane. What then?

Apparently, the first device that appeared in service with the aeronauts was precisely statoscope, or if easier - aneroid barometer. That is a simple barometer that instead of atmospheric pressure scale has a scale calibrated in height. After balloons, airships and balloons, the device has migrated into the first airplane cabin.

A talented French hydraulic engineer Henri Pitot, even in 1732, the measured flow rate of the Seine, and opened a link between the static and dynamic pressure of a moving fluid. He further found that the difference between static and dynamic pressure is proportional to the square of the fluid velocity. Next - business equipment, Henri Pitot invents a device for measuring fluid velocity, now worldwide known as the "pitometer».

Now in modern receivers, the air pressure, the Pitot tube is used as part of the Prandtl tube (Named so in honor of the German hydrodynamics Ludwig Prandtl). Sometimes even today, you can hear someone wanting to flash with "aviation" terms, when you see the LDP, calls it Pitot's pipe. So, to be precise it is not the Pitot tube, namely the Prandtl tube, which has not only the main inlet directed upstream, but is also small holes around the main channel, and in no way associated with him. They are static pressure receivers. The difference between total pressure and static pressure, according to the Bernoulli law, is dynamic pressure, and can be measured with a pressure gauge.

Why am I all that? Pressures on the principle of measuring work altimeters and pointers speed of modern aircraft and helicopters. It is well known HP-10-350 and FF, which are probably all over that now flies (I do not take, of course, modern jet aircraft).

But, despite the evidence of use and the Prandtl tube, and the law of Bernoulli us, after so many years, probably at the dawn of aviation it was not so obvious. And because even the cabin fighter during World War I, not burdened devices. More precisely, in addition to all of the same barometric altimeter, their simply is not there. There is a clock and compass, and the horizontal location schlyupochny! Can you imagine it? In the narrow and cramped cockpit.


History of ordinary things: aviation watches and other ... 1

That's cabin looked WWI fighter


And now let me go back yet to the history of the clock, the heroes of the pioneer aviators Louis Bleriot and the Brazilian Santos Dumont.

History of ordinary things: aviation watches and drugoe2

French, Brazilian-born Alberto Santos-Dumont.


Rich and eccentric Alberto Santos-Dumont, was a favorite not only of Parisians, but, perhaps, of the whole of France. In the era of rapid technological development, a young, handsome, wealthy Alberto spent money not on secular entertainment, but invested them in his inventions, in the development and research of technical innovations of that time: motorcycles, cars, but especially in the development of aeronautics and aeronautics. And, often Parisians, on a summer morning could witness such a picture: exquisitely dressed Alberto, gracefully "parked" his airship at the Eiffel Tower, and descended from it to breakfast in a restaurant on one of the levels.


History of ordinary things: aviation watches and drugoe3

Watches Cartier de Santos produced in our time.


Santos-Dumont was well received in all the noble houses of Paris, all the banking houses and of course the well-known Lui Karte. Louis, a close friend of the aviator, the grandson of the founder of the famous House of Cartier (Cartier) and produced at the request of Alberto clock, which is attached to the wrist by means of a leather strap. Santos Dumont explained friend that in flight, when both hands are constantly busy, quite thoughtfully take the usual hours of pocket vest. Hours are called Santos, it was a good marketing move, and soon, the clock began to disperse huge parties. It should be noted that the clock Santos de Cartier and to this day they are very popular among lovers of discreet luxury and classics, and their cost ranges from 800 to two or three million rubles.

History of ordinary things: aviation watches and drugoe5

Louis Bleriot before the flight across the English Channel


The following story is connected with the name of another aviation pioneer Louis Bleriot. Of course, everyone knows that the history of the most dovydumannye stories eventually overgrown with a number of parts and details. But, nevertheless, they do not become from it less than entertaining.

So, the famous French aviator is already preparing to fly through the English Channel in its narrowest place (about 40 km). His flight is not exactly athletic or promotional. The fact is that in the summer of 1909 the newspaper Daily Mail announced a solid reward (25000 francs!) To that aviator who will first cross the strait through the air. Blerio at registration was ahead of another, no less famous pilot Hubert Latam. But all the starts of Latam were unsuccessful, the wind and rain, usual in these places did not give a chance to the famous pilot. Finally, one of the attempts was successful, and Latham had already practically reached the coast of Dover, when the engine of his plane had decayed completely. The pilot was caught by the sailors of the Coast Guard.

On board the plane Bleriot XI devices did not exist. The intrigue of all the flight is still in the aircraft engine. Few people know that the three-cylinder engine Alessandro Anzani had gas adjustment! Ie have only one mode of operation!

4 41 hours minute 25 1909 year in July, the pilot was awakened with the news that over the Strait of complete calm. After 33 minutes (according to other sources through 37 minutes) after the seemingly endless flight Bleriot XI hard flops podlamyvaya chassis field near Dover lock.

At Louis Bleriot was just 40 minutes of engine time! Flying an airplane was at the limit of the stock fuel. Any sufficiently strong headwind ... and Bleriot aircraft to stop the engine would have fell into the waters of the bay. Louis's right calculated as for timing, on the sleeve of his jumpsuit adorned clock on the strap then little-known company Zenith.

History of ordinary things: aviation watches and other

Those same hours Zenith which Louis Bleriot flew


"I am very pleased with my watch Zenith, which I usually use, and vividly recommend them to anyone who cares about accuracy!"

Now it is already difficult to establish whether there was a pilot's contract with the watch company Zenith, but this phrase went around all the newspapers in the world. Business of the company quickly went uphill, and in addition to watches, it began to produce on-board instruments for aircraft. And Louis Bleriot, in addition to worldwide fame and fame, received the 25 francs owed to him in addition.

And men received wristwatches, which after these significant events firmly entered the image of a modern business man. Until this time, wrist watches were issued as a jewelry for women in the form of a bracelet. But, it should be noted that by the beginning of the 1900-ies they were not very popular among the beautiful Parisians. This was due to the arrival of fashion on long, to the wrist of the magnificent sleeves of blouses. For hours there was no place. In the windows of the famous jewelry house Cartier, a clatter of watches of women's bracelets with jewelery was gathering dust. The request of Alberto Santos-Dumont came in handy! Conservative men did not immediately follow the trendy trend, and the first to wear a wristwatch, and even in the male version, were all the same women. And later men sported even a couple of hours: some on a traditional chain, baggettes in a pocket of a waistcoat - a sign of prosperity and wealth. Others on the hand, a sign of following trends of fashion, trend, as it is now customary to say.

That's right, aircraft had (not the first and not the last time) on our daily lives.


History of ordinary things: aviation watches and drugoe6

Rare photos and a rare event: Alberto Santos-Dumont (seated right) as a passenger on an airplane Louis Bleriot (seated left)



For avia.problems material has been prepared Valery Smirnov

A good article, but it would not hurt to talk a little about the side clock. So, the photo under the heading - the side clock of the AFCW (aviation clock-chronometer with heating). They were installed on the dashboard of the pilot and the navigator, while the shooters and radio operators had AVRM (aviation with a rotating welt).

Excellent article.