The history of the helicopter
The history of the helicopter

The history of the helicopter


NE Zhukovsky (1847-1921 years.), The "father of Russian aviation", as he called it, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, wrote a fundamental work on aerodynamics, "O bound vortices", which founded the modern theory of the wing, "Vortex Theory of propeller "is the basis for the theory of screws. Built on the advanced theory of propellers "Neiges" was much better than foreign screws.

NE Zhukovsky was the founder of the first European scientific experimental aviation center - Aerodynamic Institute, established in Kv4iiho near Moscow (1904 city).


Helicopter Zhukovsky

Activities Zhukovsky not only give a powerful impetus to the science of aviation, but also developed a love for aviation have advanced to Russian youth, which Zhukovsky
He said: "In Russia we have a theoretical strength, there are young people willing to selflessly devoted to sports and scientific study of the way of flying." From among these young people, many subsequently were followers of "the school of Zhukovsky."

By the "school of Zhukovsky" belongs to Sergey Chaplygin (1869-1942 years.), Academician, Hero of Socialist Labor, wrote such outstanding work -like "Theory of lattice-wing» (1911 the city), "split wing schematic theory» (1921 g .) and others. The idea of ​​"the end of the vortex whiskers", expressed by Chaplygin in "The results of theoretical research on the movement of airplanes," helped to recreate the physical picture of the wing and the blade.

1910-1911 years. a turning in the history of aircraft-building. These years were marked by the creation of NE Zhukovsky and his disciples BN Yuriev, V. and G. Vetchinkin X. Sabinin the classical theory of the propeller, which is applied to the present day.

By this time, they are working to determine the magnitude of the thrust propellers with different shapes of blades and their different amount depending on the number of revolutions. Were the work done to determine the efficiency of the propeller, t. E. The relationship between the detected output propeller shaft and propeller thrust developed.

In 1910-1911 years. Boris Yuryev, nowadays academician, winner of the Stalin Prize, offered single-rotor scheme with the tail rotor of the helicopter, and built on it the helicopter. This helicopter B. II. St. George in 1912 was demonstrated at 2-th International Exhibition of Aeronautics and Moscow, where the designer was awarded a gold medal for the excellent theoretical development project gelioptera and constructive implementation. "


helicopter Yuriev

Another scheme helicopter BN St. George became the classical scheme, which is currently under construction on the majority of helicopters.

All are equipped with modern helicopters also invented BN Yuriev-warp machine, through which the pilot controls the flight of the helicopter. About device ego machine will be explained below.

In pre-revolutionary Russian scientists and inventors, have not received any material of the tsarist government, pi moral support, were forced to seek various ways and means possible to implement their ideas.

It was only after the Great October Socialist Revolution by the decision of the Communist Party and the Soviet government created the Central Aero-Hydro-Dynamic Institute (TsAGI) is widely deployed by helicopter construction work.

In the entire history of the helicopter key issue has always been a question of the stability of the helicopter. If you see the test results previously built helicopters, then they will find almost the same conclusions, "it was designed. built. I had such a feature. I passed flight tests. the unit was very unstable. "
To achieve sustained flight helicopter was required to conduct a comprehensive study of the rotor. For this great work undertaken in 1926, the BN Yuriev with a group of workers TsAGI, which included II. P. Bratukhin, NI Kamov, ML Mil and others. This group carried out a large number of experiments, theoretical studies and works on the method of calculation, made a decisive contribution to the helicopter.

In 1932 the Soviet single-rotor helicopter TsAGI-1-EA built a pilot plant TsAGI team under the direction of M. Isaacson and AM Cheremukhina scheme BN Yuriev, in 30 times higher than the world record height of class helicopter rising to a height of 605 m. The pilots on this helicopter was the deputy department nachalnnka gelikopternogo TSAGI Professor AM Cheremuhnn.

In 1939, IP Bratukhin, with the participation of BN Yuriev, began designing the Omega helicopter, which had two engines and two main rotors located on both sides of the fuselage. In 1944, IP Bratukhin and BN Yuriev were awarded the Stalin Prize for their work on the design and construction of this helicopter.

Then, in 1940-1941 years. II. P. Bratukhin built helicopter TSLGP-11-ELPV, testing and systematic missions that are running pilot DI Saveliev.

In parallel with the development of the helicopter was the development of other rotorcraft - gyroplane.

If a helicopter main rotor is rotated by the motor and serves both to generate lift and thrust to generate, then gyroplane these functions are divided between the two screws. Engine power only gets tractor propeller and rotor rotates itself under the influence of air flow. When the screw will develop a certain number of turns, it becomes a lifting force sufficient to separate the gyroplane from the ground, climb and flight.

In 1934 of a gyroplane in the Soviet A-7, constructed NI Kamov in the Central Aero-Hydro-Dynamic Institute, broke all existing records at the time of speed (221 km per hour) and carrying capacity (750 kg).

In recent years, air parade in honor of the Day of Air Fleet of the USSR and in honor of the Navy pilots show our achievements of the Soviet people in the construction of helicopters.

July 8 1951, in Tushino the audience was shown a group flying helicopters Mil design when ten helicopters, rising straight up from the airport, formed in the air at the height of 150 m vicious circle then, circled around the entire airport, disappeared from field of view.



At the air show July 27 1952 23 of August of 1953 have been demonstrated even more extensive program display helicopters.

10 1952 August, in the celebration of the Day of Navy helicopters took part in the construction of NI Kamov.

During the air show in Tushino 20 1954 June, the helicopters opened a third branch of the program operations. In the air, helicopters 36 appeared with one rotor, which landed and dropped off a large landing on green airfield. And on the Day of Air Fleet, July 3 1955, the convoy of helicopters bringing up four brand new, like a huge boxes, a helicopter with two rotors.

The Soviet Union belongs to a large number of world records; Soviet pilots around the world have repeatedly demonstrated their high flying skills.

History of aviation