JB-1 (JB-10)
JB-1 (JB-10)

JB-1 (JB-10)

The JB-1 Bat is one of the first missiles created under the JB program. Design began in July 44, and the new product was assigned an official index - MX-543. "Northrop" proposed to design a certain projectile with an installed turbojet engine with the ability to deliver two 900-kilogram bombs at a serious distance.

But at that time there was a problem because of the lack of information on the management of aircraft "flying wing". As a result, engineers from "Northrop" designed and built a manned glider pilot, the main purpose of which is to working out the dynamics of the elements. In the course of the research it was found that the sample with respect to manned accurately simulate the dynamics of the future JB-1. In August this year, the glider has completed numerous test flights, and especially his appearance led to getting the nickname "Bat» (Bat).

When all the nuances of the dynamics were worked out on the glider, the company's designers began work on creating a full-fledged cruise missile. BA JB-1 Bat had a wide wing with a span of 9 m. The device began its flight thanks to a General Electric B1 turbojet engine. They were installed on board in an amount of 2 pieces, which were fed with air located in the bow of the central air intake.

Launch rocket was planned using a rocket sled that can be dispersed on 150-meter ramp. According to initial calculations, the missile has the speed of flight in 727 km / h with a range in 1080 km. Its main task is to deliver to the place of discharge of the two pound bombs 900-which were installed in streamlined blisters on both sides of the inlet.

By the end of the year, the rocket was put on tests. Its first flight took place on December 28 and ended unsuccessfully, as the rocket fell off the guides, began to descend and crashed three hundred meters from the launcher. An expert examination of the accident was carried out. She showed that the reason for the failure was a mistake made when setting the ailerons. Inappropriate engine characteristics also negatively affected. All this influenced the further fate of the drone. In February 45, the development of the JB-1 Bat was closed, and all the resources and time were spent on the more progressive JB-10 UAV.

But the closure of the project did not in any way affect the interest of the US Air Force in the idea of ​​constructing a cruise missile, which was supposed to not only compare, but also overtake the German-made V-1 rocket. After the unsuccessful start of the JB-1 Bat, developers began to pay more attention to propulsion systems of different production. That the JB-1's failure was entirely due to the inadequate performance of the turbojet engines was undeniable.

In late February 45-year company Northrop proposed to operate a new cruise missile for air-breathing engine pulsating "Ford» PJ31-F-1. Cheap, simple and relatively powerful engine could solve most of the technical challenges posed by the new rocket. Thus, the company was planning to re-create the project.

She decided to index as the JB-10. She had a relatively big difference with the original version, especially because of the longitudinally extending axis of the engine. He was inside the fuselage, which meant an additional installation of the annular air intake - increase cooling. The idea of ​​hanging bombs under the wing was rejected. Instead she decided to take themselves wings, and are integrated in 800-killogramovye with explosive charges.

For the first time a new rocket was taken into the air in the spring of the same year. Her guidance system was very primitive. The launched rocket flew on a straight course. The operator had to calculate in advance the moment to dive the rocket to the target. The V-1 had the same system, which limited the JB-10 to use only for large areal targets. But unlike the German design, the American one had an increased flight speed, about 685 km per hour, which in turn made it difficult to intercept.

The US Air Force expected to use unmanned aerial installations to invade Japan, but the JB-10 trials drastically delayed because more upgrades and development were needed (only 10 was successful from 2 launches). The project was closed, and being unfulfilled due to the end of the Second World War. 

JB-1 (JB-10). Characteristics:

Modification   JB-1A   JB-10
The diameter of the rotor, m   8.63   7.95
Length m   3.21   3.60
Height, m   1.38   1.47
Wing area, m2   14.40   15.14
Weight, kg   3213   3271
engine's type   1 turbojet engine General Electric B1   1 ramjet Ford PJ31-F-1
Thrust, kgf   X 1 180   1 x 410
Maximum speed km / h   645   690
Flight distance, km   1078   322
Practical ceiling, m    


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