Ju-87 - dive bomber.
Military aviation
Ju-87 - dive bomber. History. A photo. Video.

Junkers Ju-87 - dive bomber.

Story. Photo. Video.

Ju-87 - German dive bomber from World War II. He became one of the symbols of the German war machine and success of German troops in 1939-1942 years, partly because of his recognizable and unique appearance, thanks in part to the high combat effectiveness. Dive Bomber sounds like «Sturzkampfflugzeug» German as a shortened version of the word in the German troops caught the word «Stukas», well, in the Soviet - just a "thing". Why "Pieces" became a symbol of the German "blitzkrieg"?

Junkers Ju-87 photo

Ju-87 - dive bomber. 2

Development of the aircraft began in 1934 year, as part of the overall development of the German war machine and the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) in particular. At that time, competitors "pieces" were machines from Arado, Heinkel and Blohm & Voss, but the competition for the military order was won by the car company Junkers. The new aircraft had to perform tasks for the direct support of ground troops. By the way it is for this purpose a few years later in the Soviet Union began to develop IL-2However, despite the similar tasks, these two aircraft have different methods for solving them.

As mentioned above, Ju-87 a dive bomber, ie He hits his target of a dive, even more accurately from the steep dive (from 60 90 degrees relative to the horizon), and this is subject to the entire structure of the aircraft, because of that he has become so recognizable. Why out of a dive? Such a method provides the highest precision bombing, which has become sufficient to defeat the purposes of the single, when bombarded with horizontal flight it was unattainable at that time.

Junkers Ju-87 photo

Ju-87 - dive bomber. 23

This type of attack has its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the attack in level flight at a minimum height, or "gentle" dive (up to 45 degrees relative to the horizon). Namely, higher accuracy, less time spent by antiaircraft fire. However, this form of attack repeated attacks can not be made from a steep dive, due to lack of the required height, respectively, often after the first reset "pieces" just went home, leaving their troops on the ground.

Junkers Ju-87 scheme

Ju-87 - dive bomber. 23 scheme

Flying in steep dive and subsequent successful way out of it before the collision with the ground puts special demands on the design of the aircraft. First of all, you need a strong aerodynamic drag, because the force of gravity instantly disperse the aircraft weight in 5 tons to critical values. For this reason the "thing" has a rather nasty aerodynamics, fixed landing gear (for which the airplane has been nicknamed "laptezhnikom") and rejects the aerodynamic brakes under both wings.

Junkers Ju-87 specifications and specifications.
Ju 87A Ju 87B Ju 87D Ju 87G
Produce 1936-1938 1938-1941 1941-1944 1941-1944
Class dive-bomber dive-bomber dive-bomber attack plane
Length 10,8 m 11,1 m 11,1 m 11,1 m
Wingspan 13,8 m 13,8 m 13,8 m 13,8 m
Height 3,9 m 3,9 m 3,9 m 3,9 m
wing area 31,90 m² 31,90 m² 31,90 m² 31,90 m²
Empty weight 2273 kg 2760 kg 2810 kg 3600 kg
Weight Limit 3324 kg 4400 kg 5720 kg 5100 kg
Engine Junkers Jumo 210D Junkers Jumo 211Da Junkers Jumo 211J Junkers Jumo 211J
Maximum power 720 hp 1200 hp 1410 hp 1410 hp
Maximum power 530 кВт 883 кВт 1037 кВт 1037 кВт
full speed 310 km / h 383 km / h 408 km / h 375 km / h
The maximum permissible speed 550 km / h 600 km / h 600 km / h
Range 800 km 600 km 1165 km 1000 km
Потолок 9430 m 8100 m 9000 m 7500 m
Rate of climb 3000 m for 8.8 min 3000 m for 14 min 3000 m for 13.6 min
Course weapons 1x × 7,92 mm MG 17 2 × 7,92 mm MG 17 2 × 7,92 mm MG 17
or 2 × 20 mm MG 151
2 × 7,92 mm MG 17
and 2 × 37 mm BK 37
Defensive weapons 1 × 7,92 mm MG 15 1 × 7,92 mm MG 15 1 × 7,92 mm MG 81Z
(paired MG 81)
1 × 7,92 mm MG 81Z
(paired MG 81)
The maximum bomb load 500 kg (without the arrow) 1000 kg (without the arrow) 1800 kg (without the arrow) no
Standard bomb load 1 × 250 kg (under the fuselage) 1 × 250 / 500 kg (under the fuselage)
+ 4 × 50 kg (under the wing)
1 × 500 kg (under the fuselage)
+ 4 × 50 kg (under the wing)
or 1 × 1000 kg (under the fuselage)
no

All this was enough to dive throughout the aircraft's speed does not exceed 400-500 km / h, though the horizontal speed of the aircraft was 300-350 km / h. This gave enough time to aim, resulting in greater accuracy. Further, the high strength of the airframe, because the impact of large aircraft congestion at the output of the PIkirovaniya. In order to increase the strength of the wings, they have the shape of an inverted "gull wing". Also, the success of the aircraft was due to a large number of innovations, such as automatic display of the dive, the siren to suppress the morale of enemy soldiers during the dive, etc.

Ju-87 video

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