Cruise missile FAU-1
Cruise missile FAU-1

Fi-103 cruise missile. V-1. (V-1)


During the Second World War, the German side used V-2 (A4) ballistic missiles and V-1 cruise missiles (Fi-103) on the western front. A fundamentally new weapon, despite a number of shortcomings, was effective from a military point of view. Moreover, the experience of its use in combat conditions for a long time has unambiguously determined its power and the leading place in the system of the armed forces of the countries of the world. It is no coincidence that within three to four years after the victorious 1945, the leading countries of the world - the USA, the USSR and Great Britain - were armed with this type of missile. The rockets V-2 and V-1 are designed to solve their problems. The presence of two classes of weapons increases efficiency and expands the range of their combat use.

The damage caused by missiles during the Second World War was great - civilians were killed, industrial and civilian objects were destroyed. Due to a number of circumstances, this type of weapon was not used on the Soviet-German front. The choice of targets for air attacks by the German side would not have been difficult - Murmansk, Leningrad, the Black Sea region. Work on the creation of a cruise missile began in Germany in 1930-1940-ies. Flight tests were first conducted 24 December 1942. The first motor installed on Fi-103 was Argus 109-014. The cruise missile was an unmanned aerial vehicle with all the characteristic features for the aircraft: fuselage, wing, horizontal and vertical tail with rudders of height and direction. Naturally, the Fi-103 flights did not depend on meteorological conditions, and thus, air strikes could be applied at any time. The design of the fuselage consisted of six sections. As a material, in addition to duralumin, plywood was used.

The element of novelty in the design of the cruise missile was the autopilot. The flight program, compiled on the ground, after the launch of the missile could no longer be changed. The precision of the rocket hit the target was small, the deviation was up to 15 m. The rockets fell to populated areas, destroying residential areas, as in the case of the massive bombing of the German air forces (Dresden, Hamburg ...). To raise the question of whether new weapons were effective, whether there were many or few people killed, why few objects were destroyed in the UK, and so on, is immoral and meaningless. The missiles, with their "imperfection" (ideological definition), brought many troubles to the enemy's territory. 2419 Fi-103 fell on London, 8696 on Antwerp, 3141 on Luttix, and so on.

Launching a cruise missile was carried out either by using a catapult or from an aircraft carrier. Used bombers Ar-234, not-111.

In Germany, all produced 250 000 instances missiles Fi-103.

As a result of rocket attacks from the Fi-103 5800 killed more people, more than 18 thousand. Man injured. It was destroyed 123 000 buildings. In the fight against the British cruise missiles antiaircraft forces achieved considerable success: 1878 missiles were destroyed by antiaircraft fire, 1847 - fire fighters, 232 killed by collisions with air barrage balloons.

The Soviet Union has got a lot of models of rockets Fi-103 and accessories. But even before the war, work on the creation of a cruise missile based on German documents received intelligence means. It was established Raman 10HN - missiles fired from aircraft Tu-2. We are considering the option of using for this purpose the aircraft Pe-8 with two missiles. Practical application of Russian missiles have not received.


Characteristics of the V-1:


Arsenal look

  • Brief TTX

  • Length, m: 7,75

  • Wingspan, m: 5,3 (later 5,7)

  • Fuselage diameter, m: 0,85

  • Height, m: 1,42 (1,55)

  • Curb weight, kg: 2160

  • Engine: 1 PuVRD Argus As 014 2,9 with traction kN (296 kgf)

  • Maximum airspeed: 656 km / h (approx 0,53M); The speed increases as the relief unit (with fuel) - to 800 km / h (approx. 0,65M).

  • Maximum range of flight, km: 286

  • Service ceiling, m: 2700-3050 (in practice, flew at altitudes of up to 100 1000 meters)

  • Warhead weight, kg: 700-1000, equipment Amatol

  • Fuel consumption, l / km: 2,35

  • Tank capacity, l: 550-640, gasoline (80-octane).

  • The circular error probable (projected), km: 0,9



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