Instrument landing system
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Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system

 

ILS ground equipment systems (ILS) consists of a localizer and glide path and three marker beacons (currently proximal marker is not established at all airports). At some airports, to build a maneuver approach the marker at the far point is set the drive station.

At international flights, you can find two options for placement of ground equipment.

  • First option: the localizer is located on the extension of the runway center line and the area of ​​the course coincides with the axis of the runway, t. E. Its occurrence corresponds to the corner of the landing (landing course).
  • The second option: the localizer is not located on the runway axis, but to the side — to the right or to the left of it, so that the center line of the course zone passes through the middle marker at an angle of 2,5-8 ° to the landing line.

ILS localizer system work in a circular form. Recently installed beacons sector options: angular width of the sector 70 ° to either side of the landing. Main features of the course areas and ILS glide path, see ground equipment SP-50, as they coincide with the corresponding characteristics of SP-50 under the new regulation.

Marker beacons ILS systems operate on the same frequency (75 MHz), which in the SP-50 and emit the following code signals: a proximal handle - six points in the second; middle marker - two dashes turns and six points in the second; long-range marker (in the materials of ICAO - the outer marker) - two dashes per second.

Ground Equipment Systems JV-50 located at airports by a single model scheme.

As a result of the adjustment system equipment SP-50 in accordance with ICAO standards adopted for the system ILS, localizer and glide path have the following technical data.

Area localizer. The center line of the zone of the course coincides with the axis of the runway. Linear band width 1350 m distance from touchdown is 150 m (between 120 195 to m), which corresponds to an angular deviation from the longitudinal axis of the runway least 2 ° and not more than 3 °.

The range of the beacon provides reception of signals at a distance of more than 70 km from the start of the runway at an altitude of 1000 m in a sector 10 ° wide on each side of the runway axis (see 91). For the ILS localizer beacon, the operating range is 45 km at an altitude of 600 m.

Area glide slope. The optimal angle of the glide path is 2 ° 40 '. There are obstacles in the sector approach, glide slope angle increases to 3 ° 20 'and in exceptional cases may be up to 4-5 °. At the optimum glide path angle reduction 2 ° 40 'plane flies over with a decrease in long-range and short-range markers (if the default location) at altitudes respectively 200 and 60 m.

The angular width of the zone at the optimal glide angle of inclination may be within 0,5-1 4 °, wherein with increasing inclination angle increases the rate of descent, and the band width is increased to facilitate piloting an aircraft.

The range of the glide path provides reception of signals at least 18 km away in the sectors of 8® right and left of the line planting. These sectors, which provides reception of signals limited by the height of the angle above the horizon equal to 0,3 glide path reduction and above the glide path angle equal to 0,8 glide path reduction.

Ground equipment of SP-50M intended for use at-director and automatic approach for the ICAO standards 1-th grade.

The stability of the center line of bedding course provides more stringent requirements for equipment.

In cases where the length of the runway is much higher than optimum, the width of the course area shall be at least 1 ° 75 '(poluzona).

All other parameters kursoglissadnyh lighthouses are governed strictly in accordance with the technical standards of the ICAO.

Systems director control entering ka landing

At present, the civil aircraft turbine engine installed with the guiding system (command) management approach ("Drive", "The Way"). These systems are systems of semiautomatic aircraft control during landing.

Command devices in these systems is a null indicator of CAP-48 or CAT-M.

Under a semi-automatic control is to be understood piloting the aircraft on the command device, the arrow is on the approach since the beginning of the fourth turn and landing on the need to hold the line at zero. In contrast to the conventional approach of SP-50 null indicator in this case, does not inform the pilot position with respect to the beams areas localizer and glide path beacons and shows him what the angles of pitch and roll you need to maintain to accurately access the radio beam area and following them.

The director's control system simplifies piloting by converting navigation and flight information about the position of the aircraft in space and forming it into a control signal that is displayed on command instruments. The deviation of the command arrows is a function of several parameters that are taken into account by individual instruments in the normal approach approach for the pilot: the NPS-48 system of the SP-50 system, the air horizon, the compass and the variometer. Therefore, the command arrows are in the center of the scale not only when the aircraft follows strictly in the equisignal zones of the course and the glide path, but also when the correct exit to the equispansed zones is carried out.

On aircraft that are already in operation, establishes a simplified system of director control, acting on the basis of the existing airborne and ground equipment: ESP radio PKK-F glide path radio SRC-2, navigation indicator NO-50BM or dial the course ZK-2B, central gyrovertical TSGV or gyrosensors (AGD, PPP). In addition, the kit includes: a calculator, a communication unit with autopilot in the presence of an AP on the plane.

Maneuver approach in an airplane equipped with the guiding system of control is performed as follows:

1. Having received permission to enter the area of ​​the airport equipped with the SP-50 system or ILS, the crew, acting in accordance with the scheme approved for this airport, takes the aircraft to the place of the beginning of the fourth deployment; the crew must:

  • a) on the NI-50BM course machine, set the map angle equal to the landing MPU for the given landing direction;
  • b) set the wind speed to zero on the NI-50BM wind generator;
  • c) before turning on the power on the M-50 shield, make sure that the direction and glide path arrows of the null indicator are in the center of the scale, otherwise set them in the center with a mechanical corrector;
  • d) put the "SP-50 - ILS" switch in the position corresponding to the system used for the approach;
  • e) install on the control panel of the SP-50 the corresponding channel for the glide path beacons;
  • f) turn on the power on the M-50 panel;
  • g) turn on the power on the control panel of the director system;
  • h) make sure that the control cabinet and hydraulic fracturing unit are working properly by the deviation of the zero indicator arrows and by closing the blenders on their scales (the blenders close after the receiver lamps have warmed up and in the presence of signals from ground beacons)
  • i) during the landing approach in the section between the third and fourth turns with the blenkers closed, check the electrical balancing of the heading bar zero by turning the balance knob on the M-50 shield in one direction or another until the arrow reaches the center of the scale. Check the check after the plane goes straight.

2. The moment of the beginning of the fourth reversal can be determined:

  • a) with the help of the ARC on the CSD DPRM;
  • b) in azimuth and range of the goniometric-rangefinder system "Svod";
  • c) at the command of a dispatcher observing the aircraft using a ground radar;
  • d) onboard radar;
  • e) by scaling the heading bar of the command device.

3. At the moment of the beginning of the fourth turn, create a side of deviation of the heading bar of the command device such a roll at which it is set to zero of the scale. During the turn, the pilot must keep the null indicator needle centered on the scale while increasing or decreasing roll. The roll is always created towards the deflection of the arrow.

In case of an early start of the fourth turn to keep the exchange rate of the arrow at zero initially need to create a roll 17-20 °, which subsequently must be reduced in some cases, until the complete withdrawal of aircraft from the roll. However, when approaching the runway alignment coursework arrow command unit will need to establish a bank, the need for a smooth fitting into line planting.

Late start of the fourth turn changes the rate at an angle greater than 90 °, and the sign of the roll changing. The entire maneuver including accounting drift angle, worked through the system automatically.

When the final turn should always make sure that blenker course were closed to all null indicators.

4. After making the fourth turn and entering the equal-signal heading zone, continue the flight without descent, keeping the directional arrow of the command device in rolls in the center of the scale. When

It is necessary to follow the arrow glide path, which after the fourth turn up will be rejected. Blenker glide path must be closed.

Once the shooter command unit closer to the white mug, immediately begin to decline, holding director arrows glide path in the center of the black circle.

5. Determine the possibility of continuing the descent along the glide path according to the flight altitude of the DPRM: if above the DPRM, when the glide path arrow is within the white circle, the flight altitude is equal to or exceeds the set for this airport, then further descent along the glide path can be continued; If, with the correct glide path keeping, the aircraft reached the set altitude of the DPRM flight and did not receive any signals of its actual flight, then immediately stop descending along the glide path and then, after passing the DPRM, descend according to the rules established for the OSB system.

6. After passing the DPRM, keep the directional arrows of the command zero-indicator in the zero position, while preventing a decrease out of sight of the ground below the weather minimum set for the airport.

Upon detection of the ground (landing lights) must go to visual flight and land.

Errors in setting the course on the NI-50BM machine, exceeding in sum with the demolition angle 15 °, will not allow the approach approach to be made through the director's management system. To avoid this, before the start of the fourth turn, the navigator should again be convinced of the correctness of installing the "Corner of the map" on the NI-50BM course machine in the correct operation of the course system. When the magnetic course is much larger than the actual course on the landing line, the aircraft will deviate to the right from the axis of the equipotential zone of the local radio beacon, and if the readings are too low, it will go to the left. To ensure good accuracy of the system on the landing line at large angles of drift, the navigator must ensure the operation of the course system with high accuracy; The error should not exceed ± 2 °.

In addition, the accuracy of the output axis of the aircraft on the runway and follow along it also depends on the accuracy of bedding area localizer and zeroing course turn arrow buttons on the control panel SP-50.

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