Lockheed L-1011 TriStar
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar

Lockheed L1011 Traistariu (Lockheed L1011 TriStar), often referred to simply as TriStar or L1011, was the world's third largest passenger widebody jet air liner after Boeing 747 и McDonnellDouglas DC10. Like the DC-0, the TriStar was equipped with three engines. Lockheed Corporation from 1968 to 1984 has released around 250 L1011. After the appearance of L1011, Trixtar left Lockheed out of the market for commercial air transport, due to lower sales levels than planned.

History of construction

American Airlines in 1960x addressed Douglas (later McDonnell Douglas) and Lockheed competitors with a request to build a smaller aircraft compared to Boeing 747, which could transport a large number of passengers over long distances, for example, to Latin America and London from hubs airports of the aviation company, which are located in New York and Dallas. Overall, Lockheed was not present in the civil aircraft manufacturing sector since the end of 1950 due to the difficulties that were associated with Lockheed L188 Electra, which suffered several disasters due to problems with wing vibration (flutter) at the very beginning of operation. Yet after the difficulties that Lockheed experienced while working on its military projects, the company intended to return to the civil aviation market and for this step the tool became the L1011 TriStar. Initially, they intended to create a plane equipped with two engines, but subsequently decided to switch to a scheme that includes the third engine.

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar photo

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar

The project saw a cabin with 2 passages, low noise pollution (Eastern Air Lines at the beginning of 1970's was named L1011 WhisperLiner (translated as “Whispering Liner”), economical operation and increased reliability. American Airlines chose Douglas DC10, although it showed interest in LXNX. Thus, the airline company wanted to convince Douglas to lower prices for DC1011 and in the end did succeed.

The release of TriStar without the support of American Airlines was ordered by Eastern AirLines and Trans World Airlines. Although the TriStar design schedule lagged slightly behind its competitors, Douglas DC10 was almost a year ahead of Lockheed due to its powertrain problems. Having incurred significant costs associated with developing turbofan engines for TriStarRB211 in February 1971, RollsRoyce reported bankruptcy. This suspended the final assembly of L1011, but at that time it was too late to change the supplier of the engines (the alternative was Pratt & Whitney or General Electric). The British government provided a huge government subsidy to restore Rolls-Royce if the US government guaranteed the Lockheed bank loans needed to complete L1011. The US government agreed to such a move, since Lockheed (which was weakened by these difficulties on its own), in case of failure, would completely lose its sales market for RB211 engines. Despite opponents, one of whom was Ronald Reagan, then governor of California at the time, the US government gave such guarantees.

Designed for the transportation of 400 passengers, TriStar has a scheme according to which the Rolls-Royce turbofan engine was located under the wings, and the third engine is at the base of the vertical stabilizer. Production was carried out at the Palmdale plant in California and Lockheed in Burbank. TriStar faced tough competition from direct competitors: Boeing 747 and Douglas DC10, built on a similar pattern. In the 1980s, during the time when most competitors used the most concerns about the reliability of DC10, most of the competitors used the aircraft, Trans World Airlines announced TriStar in its advertisements as one of the safest airplanes in the world. Nevertheless, 446 DC10 versus 250 TriStar was sold - partly due to delays in the manufacture of TriStar, partly due to the fact that the version of the liner with a longer range of flight was not first introduced on the market. The costs of a RollsRoyce under government control were tightly controlled, and as a result, the company's efforts resulted in the manufacture of original engines for TriStar, which required significant improvements between the test flight and the launch.

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar Salon

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar Salon

General Electric, a competitor of Rolls-Royce, quickly developed a CF6 engine, which has a greater burden, which made it possible for Douglas DC10-30 heavy intercontinental to appear on the market. The flexibility offered to potential DC10 customers, which had a greater range, threatened the competitiveness of the L1011. Rolls-Royce undertook the design of the RB211524 motors with increased load for the L1011-200 and −500 modifications, but this required many years of work.

The main external signs of the difference between TriStar and DC10 were in the different location of the tail (middle) engine: on the DC10 the engine was suspended above the fuselage, which gave more power, while the TriStar engine was attached in the tail section in an S-shaped tunnel (as in TU -154 and Boeing 727), which gave increased strength and reduced noise. Early variations of L1011, such as −1, −100, and −150, differed from later models in the type of middle motor nacelles. Earlier versions of the gondolas were provided with a circular air intake opening, and in later models a vertical small keel was installed between the top of the fuselage and the bottom of the engine.

History operation in civil aviation

Civil Operators: TriStar, Air Atlanta Icelandic, TAAG Air Angola, AeroPeru, Aer Lingus, Air Canada, Air Luxor, Air France, SriLankan Airlines, Air Transat, TAP Air Portugal, Arrow Air, All Nippon Airways, British Airways, ATA Airlines, Caledonian Airways, British Caledonian, Cathay Pacific, BWIA, Delta Air Lines, Court Line, EuroAtlantic, Eastern Air Lines, Hawaiian Airlines, Faucett, Fine Air, Gulf Air, LTU, Iberia LAE, National Airlines, Luzair, Pan Am, Orient Thai, Pacific, Southwest Airlines, Peach Air, Saudi Arabian Airlines, Skygate, Trans World Airlines, Worldways Canada, United Airlines, Royal Jordanian ,.

Delta AirLines - the largest customer of Lockheed. Outside the United States, Cathay Pacific eventually became the largest operator of this type of aircraft, outbidding most planes after Eastern AirLines went bankrupt, having an 21 aircraft.

All the big airline companies have stopped using the plane. Cathay Pacific ceased operation in October 1996 fleet L1011, replacing it Airbus A330-300. Aviation company TWA in 1997 stopped the last flight of TriStar Delta Airlines operated TriStar until 2001, later replacing it with Boeing767-400ER.

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar scheme salon

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar scheme salon

Features Lockheed L1011-1 TriStar:

Length: 54.2m.

Height: 16.7m.

Wingspan: 47.3m.

Wing area: 321.1kv.m.

Cruising speed: 0,9M.

Maximum speed: 0,95M.

Flight range: 7419km.

Ceiling: 10670m.

Number of seats: 253 places (3klassa).

Crew: 3cheloveka.

The scale of the horizontal tail: 21.8m.

Empty mass: 101867кг.

Maximum takeoff weight: 195000kg.

Engines: 3xRolls-Royce RB21122.

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