Tupolev aircraft MDR-2 (ANT-8). Photo. Story. Characteristics.


MDR-2 (ANT-8) - long-range maritime reconnaissance, designed to Tupolev. The first flight in 1931 year.


At the beginning of 20-ies of XX century, and fell down before the restoration of Soviet Navy. However, to build a lot of big warships of the state was not possible. Because of this, the emphasis was placed on the development of submarines, naval aircraft and torpedo boats. The most effective fighting unit were sea planes, which required little financial cost in the production process. Programme for the construction of seaplanes approved in 1923 year. Then, in 1925, the list of the program joined the naval aircraft for various purposes, which include maritime reconnaissance.


The plans of the designers was to obtain a flying boat that could have a flight speed of up to 150 km / h and flight duration of up to six hours. Work on the design of DP headed Grigorovich at the Department of Maritime experimental aircraft. The brigade has developed a flying boat of mixed construction. The project was called MDR-1.

The second team, led by Tupolev, was stationed in TsAGI, which created the MDR-metal-2, later received another index - ANT-8.

The design of MDR-2

The aircraft was a twin-engine all-metal flying boat. As part of the design were two float bearing and cantilever wing.

Crew - 5 people front gunner commander, two pilots and rear gunner. Crew accommodation is as follows: the first cabin in the front of arrows, the second - the commander, then placed the cockpit and behind the central part - cabin rear gunner.

The fuselage is made by type dvuhredannoy boats, divided into five compartments by watertight bulkheads that sealed the hatches were closed.


The set consists of a cross-27 15 basic and intermediate frames. Kilbalka, kilson, skulevye profiles and stringers were part of the longitudinal framing. Below the waterline the aircraft skin was made of kolchugalyuminiya thickness of plating - 1,5 mm. On the top deck to the keel of the wing deployed longitudinal profiles.

Wing trapezoidal shape, it consisted of two detachable parts which are borrowed from the aircraft P-6. The ending and toe removable center section. Wing skin crinkled, close to the boat, it thicker to prevent bursting in the marine mode.

The frame of the central complex of four parallel spars placements and six ribs (each side of 3 pcs.).

Side ribs fixed nodes sample the frames to the main boat. The other two ribs sided float mounts.

The tail assembly was a keel, which was located high adjustable stabilizer. It is composed of a pair of spars and ribs. Due to the rope transmission that is running the drum rotation angle change performed stabilizer.

To move the plane out of the hangar to the point of dipping it into the water applied erratic chassis. It consisted of two pillars, which included one wheel.

The power plant includes two engines BMW VI with a pusher propeller, each power output hp 500 They are located in nacelles above the wing. Start the installation was due to a strong compression of the air cylinders. Each engine is equipped with a fire extinguisher of the "Typhoon". The equipment included aircraft fire alarm system is made in the TsAGI. It works in the event of a fire engine. The total capacity of the tanks was 1698 l. Oil tanks on the plane-boat had two each hold 43 liters of oil.

Equipment MDR-2

In front of the cabin was retractable suspension seat (arrow was shooting in the standing position), on the right side put the battery light.


In the commander's cabin there were signs of altitude and speed, a dashboard, the resettable of the SBR-8, the compass of AN-1, the bomb-point "Hertz". Two seats were located one above the other. The upper was folding and served during machine-gun fire and reconnaissance from the porthole. In the left side of the cockpit there was a radio receiver WHO-4, on the special board there were radio transmitters. Under the table, a camera "Potte" was mounted. Below him was a hatch, which could be removed during the flight for aerial photography. A box for five aerial bombs was attached to the port side, and there was an anchor at once. Communication with the cockpit and the arrows provided the work of the intercom.

The dashboard of the cockpit was a part of the speed indicator, altimeter, compass and giroukazatel "Pioneer". Next to the center of the fuselage was watertight compartment. It put relays, batteries, a box with ten bombs and other equipment.

Cab rear gunner was equipped with an altimeter, compass and speed indicator AN-2.

MDR-2-8 ANT features:

Modification   MDR-2
Wingspan, m   23.70
Length m   17.03
Height, m   5.67
Wing area, m2   83.96
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   4560
  normal takeoff   6665
  maximum take-off   6920
engine's type   2 PDM BMW VI (M-17)
Power, hp   X 2 680
Maximum speed km / h  
  near the ground   203
  on high   186
Cruising speed, km / h   178
Practical range, km   1062
Flight duration, h   5.0
The maximum rate of climb, m / min   143
Practical ceiling, m   3350
Crew   3
Armament:   two paired 7.62-mm machine guns DA-2 on the usual bow and erratic from one side to the other rear turrets, one 7.62-mm machine gun YES was installed in the cabin of the ship commander on the movable pin.
  bomb load on the external suspension to 900 kg bombs.



Creative way aircraft AN Tupolev did not begin with the development of the flying equipment. The first paper, which gave practical result was the creation of gliders - "moving boats" in the apt definition NE Zhukovsky. Studies have confirmed the possibility of taking off and landing of an aircraft on the water space, which greatly expanded the scope of further aircraft.
Tupolev went to the project of a flying boat for several years. This was preceded by a huge theoretical and research work, in general characteristic of the style of Andrei Nikolaevich. The new naval reconnaissance aircraft ANT-8 (MDR-2) was intended for long-range flights and had a largely experimental design. The use of a virtually unchanged wing and horizontal tail assembly with ANT-7 enabled us to focus on designing a hull of a flying boat, which was distinguished by an especially powerful skeleton. Two engines equipped with pushing screws were placed high on the wing pillars. Floats, located also on the racks on both sides of the fuselage, were made carriers. All this made it possible to provide the car with excellent seaworthiness even in conditions of excitement. But there were also fundamental shortcomings - an unacceptably high speed on the takeoff and landing modes, as well as too rigid flight controllability. Subsequently, the work on MPD-2 was stopped, but not because of the unavoidability of comments - the project is morally outdated.

That only TsAGI not come up. That torpedo Give them a fighter, the all-metal flying boat. Well, panting in KB, well made aircraft. And the result. Not needed. So it was a poor second WDM failed experiment. Just do not understand something. The task was a plane able to hold on 6 hours in the air and fly away in 4,5 thousand kilometers. And in fact: the time - 5 hours, range 3,5 thousand meters. I read about it, but did not find the reason. Of course, logically, it is clear that this is not the factory school, and designers. But I wonder how it happened?

But it could make a good naval aircraft. TsAGI made a big bet on it. Again, because of the protracted buildings and experiments, as well as the ever-increasing requirements of the project covered. The masses, he never went. I have read that sort of wanted to use it for Arctic expeditions. But like all too decayed.

Hello. A good machine could be, however, it is without perspective. As far as I know, Tupolev made it toli in 1925, felts in 1929, just do not remember. As it was being done, as a naval intelligence agent, the WDR calculated for long flights in the sea. On the water itself, he felt fine and fully met the requirements. But I do not remember exactly why it was not accepted for mass production. Or because of poor controllability in the air, or because of futility. It seems like he would have been interesting for the first two years, and then the demands have grown and the sense in such a big and "shitty" managed car would have disappeared.