# Navigation rasschetchik NRC-2

Navigation estimator NRC-2, designed by M. Kalashnikov, is counting tool for performing navigational calculations in preparation for the flight and in-flight.

With navigational calculators the following tasks:

- calculation of drift angle, ground speed, yaw rate of the wind, or the flight path of the actual track angle of known wind vectors;
- definition of wind on the famous corner of demolition and ground speed, the two corners of the demolition and the two ground speed;
- definition of distance traveled, speed and time of flight;
- determination of the radius and time turn by a predetermined angle at a known speed and angle of heel;
- recount the true speed of the instrument and the instrument into a true range 100-2500 km / h,
- determining the number M corresponding predetermined airspeed, and vice versa;
- amendments to the definition of the compressibility of the air in the testimony of a broad arrow wind speed indicators;
- It recounts the true height of the instrument and the instrument into a true range 100-25 000 m.
- determining the values of the trigonometric functions, multiplication and division of numbers in the trigonometric functions of angles.

In addition, the navigation estimator allows for some other mathematical calculations, as well as marine and translate English miles to kilometers, feet - meters, millimeters of mercury - in milibary, degrees to radians and vice versa.

Dimensions navigation calculators 130 X 11 mm.

Weight navigational calculators 0,25 kg.

## Design and operation

Navigation estimator NRC-2 consists of four rotatable about a common axis, discs that are applied logarithmic scale, and the other, a nomogram, as well as indices and are transparent windows to count on the respective scales defined or unknown quantities. One disc is a ground navigation calculators, applied on both sides of the scale, the other wheels (two - on the front side, one - back) have a smaller diameter and are movable. For reference, there are sight buttons line.

On the front side of navigation calculators based on two rotary disks arranged scale nomograms and indices forming a vetrochet and provides graphical navigation solution velocity triangle.

The principle of solving navigational triangle speeds on vetrochete calculators based on the fact that the vectors of the air and ground speed and wind are presented in relative terms. Thus, the air vector velocity V is taken as 100%, and the vectors of ground speed.

1. Conversion of speeds, expressed in km / h, in speeds, expressed in m / s, and vice versa, as well as the calculation of the distance traveled, speed and flight time is carried out according to the same rules as on the NL-10m using scales 4 and five.

2. Calculation of the course to follow and ground speed according to the known wind vector.

Set on vetrochete triangular index timescale 5 division on speed dial 4, with the value for a given air speed V km / h. The scale protsentov1 largest wind speed U km / h to determine the relative wind speed

Open exchange limb so that the features of the course against the arrow nomograms established division of ESP scale, corresponding to the magnetic direction of the wind d, and the exchange rate against the division lines corresponding to U%, applied to the limb pencil mark is the end of the relative speed of the wind.

Set against the arrow exchange value of the specified characteristics of the magnetic track angle (ZMPU). On the nomogram against the mark applied to count value drift angle (CSS). Determine the desired course of the aircraft by the formula ZMK = ZMPU = CD and install it

against the arrow (or expand on the dial clockwise - with the right to communicate, clockwise - at the left the value of FF). Against the wind mark, using lines and arcs and used nomograms, refined count value CM and relative track skorosti2 W%. (If the new drift angle different from the first by more than 1 °, against the arrows to set the course features a magnetic course with this in mind, CSS).

After ensuring that the triangular index timescale set to airspeed sex "value chennomu W% percent by using the scale to determine the magnitude of ground speed in km / h.

3. Calculation of the actual track angle and ground speed from the known wind vector.

Set the triangular index of the time scale for the division of the speed scale corresponding to the actual airspeed. Using the percent scale for U km / h, determine U%. Against the arrow of the course line, set the division corresponding to the magnetic direction of the wind, and, having marked the end of the vector of relative wind speed, set the value of the average actual (or calculated) magnetic course. Count the value of the drift angle in degrees and the value of the relative ground speed against the mark on the nomogram, then determine the magnitude of the ground speed in km / h using the percent scale. The actual (calculated) magnetic track angle is determined by the formula FMPU = = FMK + US.

4. Wind calculation based on ground speed and drift angle.

Set triangular index scale time value airspeed. With the scale of interest in W km / h to determine the value. Against the arrows to set the course features the average value of the magnetic course of flight and the values of W% and DC applied to the limb kursovom mark, which will be the end of the vector of the relative velocity of the wind.

Open course dial to match the mark applied to the exchange feature, count values of the magnetic direction and relative wind speed U%, then using the scale to determine the percent of V km / h.

5. Wind calculation for two drift angles measured on two courses.

Set triangular index timescale on the value of airspeed, and the exchange rate against the arrows features - the average value of the first magnetic heading. Along the lines of the nomogram, corresponding to the measured value of the first DC, on exchange limb pencil to draw a line. By setting the average value of the second magnetic heading; draw a line corresponding to the value of the second FF. The point of intersection of the lines is the end of the vector of the relative velocity of the wind. Wind direction and speed in km / h are determined the same way.

6. Calculation of wind for two ground speeds, determined on two courses.

Set triangular index timescale on the value of air speed and scale of interest in using the known values and W2 in km / h determine. Against the arrows to set the course features the average value of the first magnetic course and carry on exchange limb of the arc corresponding to the value. Set the average value of the second magnetic course, an arc corresponding to the value W2%. The point of intersection of the arcs is the end of the vector of the relative velocity of the wind. Wind direction and speed in km / h are determined the same way.

7. Determination of the longitudinal and transverse components of the wind vector.

The problem is solved by using a rectangular grid deposited on the sighting line sector. To do this, you must first install the triangular index value of air speed and apply on kursovom limb relative wind velocity vector. By setting the magnetic heading for which you want to determine the components of the wind, to combine the mobile sector with the sector on the nomogram, which houses the wind vector. With rectangular grid determine the percentage components of the wind and their signs. The components of the wind speed in km / h determined using percent scale.

8. Determination of the vector by its longitudinal and transverse components.

Set triangular index scale times the value of the air speed, but against the arrow course features - the magnetic courses that correspond to the values of the components of the wind. With the scale of interest to determine the relative longitudinal 5'i transverse components of the velocity of the wind. Combine the mobile sector with the sector on the nomogram according to signs constituents, using a rectangular grid of values of the relative components, applied to the sector mark, which is the end of the vector of the relative velocity of the wind.

The magnitude of the relative velocity of the wind may be determined by using concentric circles, and the speed in km / h - scale percent. Wind direction count on the exchange scale, continuing pencil vector wind to the edge of the sector.

9. Determination of the correction to the readings of the outdoor temperature indicators of the TUE and TNV type.

Amendments are measured on a scale against the values of the true air speed velocity on the scale 8.

10. Calculating the true altitude by barometric altimeter readings and, conversely, lower 12 000 m.

Accounting methodical altimeter errors arising from the mismatch between the actual temperature at the height of the flight standard value, it is carried out just as in NL-10m. For this purpose, scale and 17 20, 18 and 19 and triangular index.

The formulas applied to the rotary disk, show the order of solving the problems of recalculation of heights and speeds. The top row of characters in the formulas used in terms of instrumental values in the true (for the decision left to right), the bottom row - the translation of the true values in the instrument (for the solutions - from right to left). The designation "NO" indicates that further conversion is done with the help of NRC-2.

11. Calculating the true altitude by barometric readings vysotomera1 and, conversely, to heights over 12 000 m.

Methodical error is taken into account using the 3 and 21, 23 scales and a triangular index as well as on the NL-10.

Amendment Ani, taking into account the location of the tropopause deviation from the standard value, equal to 11 000 m, is determined by using scales 17, 20, triangular and rhombic indexes on the dial

18. For this triangular index against the set amount of heat from the ground and at altitude. Rhombic index will indicate the magnitude and sign of the correction ANP, counted on the scale of the right and left of the division according 11 000 m.

12. The calculation of the true flight speed on the testimony of aerodynamic airspeed indicator and vice versa.

Accounting methodical error broad arrow pointer speed arising from the mismatch between the actual temperature at the height of the flight of its standard value, performed by means of scales and calculators 7 11, 8, 13 and 12.

If the flight is operated at a speed of more than 400 km / h and an altitude above 5000 meters from the translation velocity is necessary to consider an amendment to the compressibility of air. In this case (as in NL-10m) on the scale 8 set or measured value of the indicator, not airspeed, t. E. The rate of uncorrected for compressibility.

The amendment to the compressibility of air is determined by using the navigation calculators scale 15, the index figure and scales

14, 16. To do this, set against the figure of the index division corresponding to the height of instrument flight, and against the values of airspeed count correction value.

The treatment of the amendment shows the formula applied to the turntable.

13. The calculation of the true speed of the narrow flight of the arrow on the testimony MAS, and vice versa.

Methodical error is taken into account with the help of scales 7, 10, 8 and 13 as well as in NL-10m.

14. Determination of the number M by the value of the true flight speed.

The problem is solved with the help of the scale and the index 10 13 and scales 8, 13 and 12. To do this, set against the index «M» 13 value of the actual temperature on the scale 13 or instrument height on the scale

12. Against dividing the corresponding true airspeed in km / h. (on a scale of 7), count on the scale 8 value of M.

The same procedure is determined by the number of M true airspeed.

15. Defining turning radius with a given bank angle and speed to turn.

Turning radius is determined by the scale /, 4 and scale tangents 2. To do this, set the value of the roll angle scale tangents against the true value of the speed in km / h on the scale 2. Against Index "?" On the distance scale

4 Read off the turning radius in kilometers.

The angle of heel of known radius and speed to turn a feedback problem.

16. Timing to turn through a predetermined angle with a predetermined speed and roll.

The turn time to a given angle is determined using a scale 4, a scale of tangents 2 and indices marked on it. To do this, set the division of the tangent scale corresponding to the value of the given roll against the airspeed value in hundreds of kilometers per hour on the scale 1. Against the index corresponding to the value of the turn angle, count the turn time in seconds or tens of seconds.

17. Multiplication and division of numbers easier to produce using logarithmic scales and true airspeed 7 and 8.

18. Construction of the numbers in the square and the square root of numbers possible using scales 1 and 4.

19. Determination of values of trigonometric functions, multiply and divide numbers in trigonometric functions of the angle of a right triangle and the decision is made by means of sines and tangents scales and related scales.

20. Translation and British marine miles to kilometers, feet meters, millimeters of mercury in millibars and back are performed using the scale 7 and indices deposited thereon and 17 scale. To do this, against one of the index (mm, s, f, mm Hg. Art.) Set the division 100 and 1000 8 velocity scale indicator. In this case, the bottom scale count produced quantities expressed in miles or feet millimeters of mercury on the upper - respectively in kilometers or meters millibars.

To convert degrees to radians against the index to establish the division 180.

In solving the problem by using the navigation calculators use scale: 4 - way and speed,

5 - time, 3 - percent, heading angles of the wind disk, nomograms of the base of the calculator, transparent wind disk and triangular scale index 5.

**Order of decisions:**

1. By rotating the movable disk, the triangular index of the scale 5 is set to the value corresponding to the calculated true speed V km / h on the scale 4. The line of the line is set on the scale 4 to a count equal to the wind speed U km / h, and against this count on the scale 3 (percent) the relative wind speed is determined.

2. The transparent wind disk is turned so that a division of the diagnostic course scale corresponding to the magnetic wind direction of 6 ° is established against the heading line of the nomogram, and on the heading line of the nomogram, counting along concentric circles a, a point is drawn with a pencil that defines the end of the vector of the relative wind speed U%.

3. By rotating the wind disk against the heading line, a division is established that corresponds to a given magnetic track angle. As a result, the point of the end of the relative vector will shift and against it on the nomogram along straight lines "b" the drift angle is measured.

4. The wind disk rotates to the right during right drift, to the left - during left drift by the value of the obtained DC. The value of the calculated magnetic heading is read against the heading line of the nomogram - The value of the adjusted drift angle is counted against the end of the relative wind vector. From the point of the end of the relative wind vector, a line is mentally drawn parallel to the arcs "b", on the heading line the value of the relative ground speed is counted in percent (No. Against the obtained value \ V%, which is on a scale of 3 (percent), the desired W km / h is read at the bottom on scale 4

The nomogram is convenient to use in the case when you have to repeatedly perform the processing operation of the same kind, but each time with a different numeric data.

**For addition and subtraction of any physical quantities can create two types of nomograms.**

1. If any physical quantities (for example, the speed of the aircraft and the associated or oncoming component of the wind speed) x and y, measured using a certain scale, are plotted on the corresponding coordinate axes, then under the condition AC - y, and AO = x, inclined drawn from a point at angles of 45 ° to the X axis will cut off the x + y and x - y segments on it.

If graph paper inclined to spend a family, we get a nomogram for addition and subtraction. To use the nomogram is not necessary to carry out the new line, but rather follow the tip of a pencil held in advance.

2. If on two parallel lines, starting from the zero line MN, plotted in the form of segments, measured using the same scale, the values x and y to be added, then line A B will cut off on the third parallel line passing in the middle.

Example, henna plotted on a scale of 1 cm = 20 km / h. If the line LZ to take out 40 km / h, then it will just be us the desired answer.

**First method called the grid method, the second - in a manner aligned points.**

Multiplication and division is performed as follows: the multiplied values of x and y is applied, as usual, on the axes X and Y. From the end point of the segment is recovering X perpendicular to the axis X and extends to its intersection with the horizontal line drawn parallel to the X axis at a distance from the - 1. The intersection of the beam to continue operating with a horizontal line drawn from a point corresponding to the value of y gives us the desired value.

When folding and subtraction can only operate on values given in the same dimensions. You can multiply and divide values measured heterogeneous measures.

Using logarithm, multiplication can be reduced to addition, and division to subtraction. For this purpose, not the numbers themselves are put on the scales, but the so-called division points corresponding to the values of the logarithms of the numbers. However, it is not the logarithms of numbers that are written in the specially obtained division points, but the logarithmic numbers themselves. Such scales are called functional scales. If the LZ scale passes strictly in the middle between functional scales 1 and 2, in view of the fact that there are results of multiplying the numbers x and y, the squares of numbers corresponding to the division of numbers scales 1 and 2, lie at the intersection points of the scale LZ with horizontal lines connecting the same division of the scale 1 and 2 . To find the sum or difference, product or quotient / when using the finished nomograms not necessary connecting line AB, and easier to put a ruler or a taut thread.

Because with the help of the nomogram to solve not only the simplest problems of addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, raising to power and root extraction, but also more complex tasks graphical solution of numerical equations with arbitrary coefficients, aviation nomogram widespread.

Several variables determined during testing empirically planes, may be deposited on the nomogram of families of curves. This greatly increases the scope of the nomogram. More expands the possibilities of their use of the nomogram with the introduction of auxiliary scales.

None of the crew of aircraft turbine engine in their daily work is complete without the use of nomograms for determining the length of the runway and run the aircraft taking into account the meteorological conditions, with different take-off weight, the concrete and the ground under different conditions and runway slope, and so on. F. Apply also nomogram to determine the distance required take-off of the extended depending on the start and others.

These nomograms are obtained when testing aircraft and are sent to operational civil aviation companies. As changes in the characteristics of the aircraft due to the completion and modification of his series are changing and nomograms. Therefore inappropriate to put in the handbook with all applicable nomograms, the more that each crew has the ability to continuously use them at airports in preparation for the flight and on board.

In addition to nomograms, various charts are also widely used in civil aviation. At traffic control centers, traffic services use a schedule based on the following principle: along the X axis on the corresponding Distances taken on a certain scale, intermediate points are put through which the aircraft flies in its pursuit along the route. On the axis and on the line parallel to it, drawn from the point of application of X corresponding to the CPM, the time of day (most often Moscow time) is also plotted on the required scale. Knowing the calculated speed or speed according to the schedule, it is possible to draw a straight line between the point corresponding to the departure of the aircraft from the IPM and the point corresponding to the time of its arrival in the CPM. Omitting the perpendiculars from the points on the X-axis corresponding to the control points on the path, and then passing to the Y-axis the resulting points of intersection of the perpendiculars with the direct calculated motion, we obtain the estimated time of flight of the QR. Receiving from the aircraft board the actual passage time of the QR, the dispatcher can always keep the line of the actual movement of the aircraft, determine the time of its actual flight of the subsequent QRs and make adjustments to the movement as necessary. According to this schedule, it is easy to determine the time of meeting aircraft, overtaking or overtaking one another, as well as the time of meeting the aircraft with darkness or dawn.

The most widely used civil aviation crews cruising charts for all aircraft types. Schemes (keys) solve problems with the help of such plots are given to them or are in the flight manual for the aircraft type.

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