Definition and classification of pilot error
Definition and classification of pilot error

Identification and classification of pilot errors



The sad joke pilots carries information about the behavior of the limiting boundary conditions Energy profession. Before formulating the definition of the error, you need to identify the problem.

According to the author, the problem of the development of effective prevention pilot error is:

  • (1) in the narrow, designed for the professional examination of the pragmatic view, while the problem requires a multidisciplinary approach;
  • (2) in the existing schemes of classification errors.


Let's consider what encyclopedias and dictionary editions offer to define and describe the concept of error. In the Ozhegov dictionary, an error is described as an incorrect and unintentional action. For the purposes of our study, this definition is clearly insufficient. In the Soviet encyclopedic and philosophical dictionaries, the term is absent at all. The psychological dictionary also lacks a general definition of human error, but there is a definition of operator error as “exceeding the established limit value, which impedes the normal functioning of the ergatic system” (Psychology. Dictionary. M .: 1990. - 494 p.). Why do the authors of the dictionary interpret the error only as the "excess" and "values" of which objects (device, mechanism) make it difficult to work? A more satisfactory definition is given by the authors "Human operator error is an action or inaction that has led to deviation of the controlled parameters of the technical part of the system beyond the permissible limits or is prohibited by the rules" (MA Kotik, AM Emelyanov).

Sincerely we accept the work of people who have studied the error category, and note that the axiomatic definition has not yet been reached. In our paper, we propose several options for determining the error.


The following definitions are used:

  • (1) unintentional action, leading to a deviation from the target;
  • (2) wrong action in terms of standardized procedures or the result of the stress of inadequate management arising in unusual situations;
  • (3) abnormal behavior, action, result - from the point of view of other people.


But the most adequate definition, which meets the goals of our research, is a more abstract definition, which makes it possible not to put dots, but dots ...  Mistake -  an assessment as a result of this inadequate resource ideas and consciousness of the subject.

What does this mean? The explanations are as follows. Let's remember how we assess our resource states, behavior and actions, decisions and results in our business and personal life. We almost always have a feeling and are almost even sure that we could have acted differently and had the best result. Sometimes there is an opposite assessment of the unexpectedly exceeded result. Why do not we act so that we have the best result? The answer was that they were not capable, they were not able to. Did only the way it was. Then it means that there are no mistakes. There are resource solutions, or otherwise - decisions based on available resources at the disposal of a person, at the time of making a decision and committing an action.

In the moment evaluation what happened, we already have else consciousness, knowledge, experience. However, this applies to cases developing consciousness. If consciousness remains the same, the man said that he had acted in the best way, and no better alternative solutions and behavior is not pictured. Understanding this context leads to a paradoxical conclusion: we have nothing of his performance can not be called a mistake. If you estimate that the result could be different and better, it means we have grown over the other and it should be assessed as personal development.

Classification «3-H." However, there are no random words in human language. The word "error" is a reflection of reality. The whole question is for what reasons a person does not do the best job. Studies with definitions go to modeling and classifications. Empirical models and classifications lead us to a deeper understanding in comparison, when we have only definitions. Many of them are given in the literature. The following model is called the author "Classes of resource status" 3-H ": negligence, incompetence, inexperience. The shares of each resource state class in the behavior of the operator are determined by the author in an expert way to analyze the set of disparate statistics.


  • 1 N. neglect. This is the class of intentional error, conscious action to inadvertently risk violating the rules. This class of behavior is seen in psihoobraze pilot flying and the profession itself. Reliable and multiple studies have confirmed the relation of this class with the class of low professionalism. On the other hand, caution, moderation and solid solutions - meaning profession. The proportion of unfavorable outcomes of this class is about 25%.
  • 2 N. Incompetence. This is - lack of training error, inability, lack of training, lack of skills. The share of this class of resource state is about one-third: 35%, and it is associated above all with the following.
  • 3 N. Inexperience. Forgetfulness, carelessness, confusion, indecision. The largest class of state resources - about 40% of adverse outcomes. Subspecies of this class can be a lot.


One subspecies class inexperience are the so-called selection error... For example: "landing gear retracted" - "landing gear extended". The choice and the oscillation of consciousness are typical examples that led to landing with the landing gear retracted with three types of signaling: light ("green lights"), sound (siren), mechanical (striped indicator on the hood). This is a very common state of human consciousness. Let's remember how we remember the phone number: 22 18 81. It is worth once mentally rearranging the two pairs of the last digits (18 81) - (81 18), and we can later look in the notebook for a long time in doubts.

Another view of the same class - habitOr habitual pattern of behavior. Example: exemption for certain taxiing strip (RD) in the home airport, pilot, do it hundreds of times. At that time, when there was an indication of the controller to release the strip on the other RD... All types of "inexperience" errors have been reduced for decades by developing and implementing prevention strategies: mandatory check cards, description of algorithms for all processes, guidelines, manuals.

The relationship between the parts of the personality structure of the pilot is obvious, but it is also obvious that they differ in the ways of training. A technically competent specialist and skilled operator may be weak in judgment and decision making. A person who possesses both can have weak ideas about leadership skills and delegation in the crew, which critically weakens the use of the crew resources. Finally, having all of the above, a pilot with a weak adaptation to stressful situations or weakening adaptation with narcotics (alcohol, smoking, pills) may not be able to cope with management in a difficult situation.


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